Results: Fifty-four patients

had a median of two prior tr

Results: Fifty-four patients

had a median of two prior transrectal ultrasonographic biopsies with negative findings. Each patient had a median of three suspicious lesions. Prostate cancer was demonstrated in 21 of 54 patients. Biopsy was performed in 178 lesions; 53 were positive for prostate cancer. Detection rates and test negative results, respectively, were as follows: T2-weighted imaging, 70% and 50%; T2-weighted GSK872 imaging and (1)H MR spectroscopy, 81% and 32%; T2-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 83% and 29%; T2-weighted imaging and DW imaging, 85% and 30%; T2-weighted imaging, (1)H MR spectroscopy, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 91% and 13%; T2-weighted imaging, (1)H MR spectroscopy, and DW imaging, 94% and 15%; T2-weighted imaging, DW imaging, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 94% and 13%; T2-weighted imaging, (1)H MR spectroscopy, DW imaging, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging, 100% and 0%.

Conclusion: Only the combination of T2-weighted imaging Tubastatin A cell line with all three multiparametric techniques depicts all identifiable prostate cancers;

a double combination with DW imaging and (1)H MR spectroscopy or contrast-enhanced MR imaging misses 6%, while reasonably reducing the number of areas needing biopsy. (C) RSNA, 2011″
“There are two types of vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR) that cause rickets in children. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-I) is caused by an inborn error of vitamin D metabolism, which interferes with renal conversion of calcidiol (25OHD) to calcitriol (1,25(OH)(2)D) by the enzyme RXDX-101 clinical trial 1 alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 (VDDR-II) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We report cases of two African children affected by VDDR-I and VDDR-II, respectively. Establishing an early diagnosis of these genetic forms of rickets is challenging, especially in developing

countries where nutritional rickets (NR) is the most common variety of the disease. A prompt diagnosis is necessary to initiate adequate treatment, resolve biochemical features and prevent complications, such as severe deformities that may require surgical intervention.”
“The strongest evidence in medical clinical literature is represented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study was designed to evaluate neurosurgically relevant RCTs published recently by neurosurgeons.

A literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE included all clinical studies published up to 30 June 2006. RCTs with neurosurgical relevance published by at least one author with affiliation to a neurosurgical department were selected.

4 false-positive results occurred per radiograph for the control

4 false-positive results occurred per radiograph for the control group.

Conclusion: CAD has

the potential to detect approximately P5091 half of the lesions overlooked by human readers at chest radiography. (C) RSNA, 2009″
“Shuddering attacks are benign shivering movements occurring in young children. The etiology is unknown; however, a relationship to essential tremor has been postulated. A series of 12 consecutive children were identified over a 6-year period ending January 1, 2007. Shuddering attacks were diagnosed based on descriptive history and videotape review. Their referral diagnosis was epilepsy in 7 (58%) and movement disorder in 5 (42%). The referring physician never suspected the diagnosis. The age of onset ranged from 8 months to 2 years (mean 13 months). Family history was negative for essential

tremor. None had epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG). All children were followed for 2 to 8 years (mean 6.3). Complete remission was noted by 3 to 7 years (mean 5.6) of age, and none had subsequent tremor during follow-up. In conclusion, shuddering attacks are frequently misdiagnosed leading to unnecessary investigations or treatment. No association with essential tremor was found neither in the child nor in the family.”
“Study Design. Prospective cohort study.

Objective. To evaluate the relative efficacies of soft and rigid collars for restricting both the full, active and functional ranges of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine during 15 activities Selleck WH-4-023 of daily living (ADLs).

Summary of Background Data. Cervical collars are frequently used for the purpose of limiting cervical motion after surgical procedures or as a treatment for certain injuries. Rigid collars are generally believed to reduce cervical motion to a greater extent than soft collars but the latter are often preferred by patients because of their

greater comfort. Although there are some data to suggest that soft collars restrict full, active ROM (i.e., the extremes of motion) to a lesser degree than rigid braces, there are currently no comparative studies that have assessed the effects of these 2 types of cervical collars on the PF-562271 functional ROM that is required to perform multiple ADLs.

Methods. In this investigation, a previously validated electrogoniometer device was used to quantify both the full, active ROM of 10 subjects as well as the functional ROM they exhibited during a series of 15 ADLs. For each individual, these ROM measurements were repeated after the application of both a soft collar and a rigid orthosis.

Results. The soft collar limited flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation by 27.1% +/- 9.9% (mean +/- standard deviation), 26.1% +/- 4.8%, and 29.3% +/- 10.3%, respectively. The corresponding reductions in ROM with a rigid collar were 53.7% +/- 7.2%, 34.9% +/- 6%, and 59.2% +/- 5.3%, respectively.

(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose EGFR inhibitor of review

Genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, many

of these SNPs are in between genes (intergenic), and presumably function through the regulation of gene expression. Microarrays that measure the expression of thousands of mRNAs have allowed investigators to study how genetic variation alters gene expression at a genome-wide level. Combining these methods has led to progress in understanding the molecular basis for the genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis.

Recent findings

Recent studies confirm that gene expression differences due to genetic variation play an underlying role in atherosclerosis. Expression levels of SORT1 are negatively correlated with an intergenic risk allele on chromosome Mizoribine purchase 1p13.3 that was previously associated with CAD. Increased SORT1 expression leads to lower hepatic secretion of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), providing a mechanistic link between a common risk variant and disease. In addition, three out of 13 newly identified CAD risk loci were found to strongly affect the expression of nearby genes. Another recent study detected variants adjacent to a newly identified atherosclerosis risk locus on chromosome 11q22

that were associated with the expression of platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGFD).


Cataloging the genetics of gene expression provides a small but crucial molecular link between genetics and clinical phenotypes such as atherosclerosis. Thus, gene expression is an endophenotype that can lead to the discovery of the underlying genes responsible

NVP-BSK805 for increasing atherosclerosis risk and potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.”
“BACKGROUND: Appendiceal mucocele is an uncommon entity that may be encountered at the time of abdominal surgery performed for an unrelated indication. The diagnosis may be suggested by imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. Whereas early resection is curative, failure to recognize the disorder may lead to rupture and the devastating consequences of pseudomyxoma peritonei.

CASE: Following an annual gynecologic checkup in a healthy 63-year-old woman, vaginal ultrasonography along with a subsequent computed tomographic study raised the possibility that an incidental appendiceal mucocele was present. At laparoscopy, this diagnosis was confirmed and the lesion was resected using minimally invasive techniques.

CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and treatment of appendiceal mucocele facilitates the successful management of this rare disorder. (Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 479-81) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.

Patients were grouped based on the presence/absence of appropriat

Patients were grouped based on the presence/absence of appropriate ICD therapy. Summary data and stored electrograms from ICDs were reviewed to determine appropriateness of therapy. Predictors of therapy were assessed by both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis.


Of 421 primary prevention patients undergoing ICD implantation, 79 (19%) had received appropriate ICD therapies. By univariate comparison, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), male sex, left ventricle diastolic diameter (LVDD), and hypertension were all significant predictors for ICD therapy over a mean follow-up time of 751 +/- 493 days (P <= 0.05). The use of beta-blockers was found to be a negative predictor. In the ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) population, 55 (17%) patients received ICD therapy and this was predicted by 7-Cl-O-Nec1 chemical structure NSVT, hypertension, LVDD, and left atrial diameter. beta-blockers were protective. In the nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) population, 24 (23%) received appropriate therapies, which were predicted by NSVT, male sex, dual chamber device, lack of biventricular device, and lack of beta-blockers. By multivariate analysis, NSVT, hypertension,

and lack of beta-blockers were significant for ICM, while NSVT and absence of beta-blockers were predictive for NIDCM. Ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, and QRS width were not significantly different between therapy and no-therapy selleck groups in any population.

Conclusions: ICD-delivered therapy occurred in 19% of primary prevention patients with both ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy and was predicted by NSVT and a lack of beta-blocker use. (PACE 2010; 33:320-329)”
“Objective-To SC79 order investigate cardiovascular changes and survival times following complete interventional device occlusion of uncomplicated left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

Design-Retrospective cohort study.

Animals-24 dogs with uncomplicated patent ductus

arteriosus that was fully occluded and reevaluated within 24 hours, approximately 3 months, and 1 year after the procedure.

Procedures-Information on medical history, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment received, and survival times were obtained from medical records. Patients were allocated into 2 groups on the basis of age (< 1 year En = 141 and >= 1 year HOD at the time of the procedure. Additional follow-up information was obtained through interviews of owners and referral veterinarians.

Results-Following ductal occlusion, decreases were detected in vertebral heart scale size, left ventricular chamber diameter in diastole and in systole, left atrial dimension, fractional shortening, aortic velocity, and ventricular wall thickness. There were no differences between age groups for postocclusion changes except vertebral heart scale size. Systolic dysfunction was detected in 14 (58%) patients on the final visit.

His symptoms resolved rapidly and repeat

His symptoms resolved rapidly and repeat Staurosporine plasma PCR done 3 months after starting treatment was negative for HHV-8. A follow-up CT scan showed a dramatic reduction in the size and amount of lymphadenopathy. After 15 months of treatment, he remains well with no evidence of graft dysfunction or rejection.”
“The physical characteristics (diameters, height and mass), chemical composition (tritratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, moisture, ash, protein, lipids and total dietary fiber), occurrence and content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and

dehydroascorbic acid), carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lycopene), vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and tocotrienol) and folates (tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate) were evaluated in the cagaita obtained from the Cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of vitamin C and carotenoids were performed by HPLC-DAD and vitamin E and folates by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The cagaita pulp presented high content of moisture (91.56g 100 g(-1)), PU-H71 in vivo vitamin C (34.11 mg 100 g(-1)) and folates (25.74 mu g 100 g(-1)). The presence of protein (0.63 g 100 g(-1)), ash (0.18 g100 g(-1)), lipids

(0.57 g100 g(-1)), carbohydrates (5.54 g100 g(-1)), dietary fiber (1.54 g100 g(-1)) and carotenoids (0.77 mg 100 g(-1)) was observed in its composition. Vitamin E isomers were not detected. Consumption of cagaita (100 g) contributed significantly to supply the daily requirements of vitamin C (on average 71.0%), vitamin A (on average 7.5%) and folates (on average 7.9%). The cagaita showed high pulp yield, reduced total energy value and was considered a source of vitamin C, which play important role in human health. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases. The metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adults Treatment Panel Nocodazole molecular weight III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions in patients with end-stage CRF undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods. A total of 222 cases undergoing HD were enrolled in the study. After obtaining medical history and physical examination, blood samples were collected from each patient for the measurements of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results. Among HD patients evaluated according to both IDF and NCEP-ATP III definitions, the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was confirmed by IDF in 56.

Water flux values for CS-HEC-MMT are less than those for Nafion (

Water flux values for CS-HEC-MMT are less than those for Nafion (R) and PVA-PSSA membranes, but the operational Stability of CS-HEC-MMT membrane is higher than PVA-PSSA and comparable with Nafion (R) both of which can operate up to 70 degrees C at repetitive cycles of humidification. (C) 2009 Wile), Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113:2605-2612,2009″
“Purpose The Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) was developed as a self-rated screening tool for dysphagia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We developed the Japanese version of this questionnaire (SDQ-J), according to

the cross-cultural adaptation guidelines, and examined its reliability.

Methods Subjects ACP-196 purchase were 61 Japanese patients with PD (mean age, 67.0 +/- 9.2 years) who answered the SDQ-J before PF-6463922 undergoing videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing (VF). We compared the findings of the questionnaire with the patients’ aspiration status during VF.

Results Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the 15 questions of the SDQ-J was 0.84. According to the SDQ-J, 15 patients (24.6%) were diagnosed with dysphagia, while 9 patients (14.8%) aspirated liquid during VF. The sensitivity and specificity of the SDQ-J in predicting aspiration

were 77.8 and 84.6%, respectively; therefore, the SDQ-J significantly predicted aspiration during VF (P < 0.01). The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the SDQ-J were 0.46 and 0.96, respectively.

Conclusions The SDQ-J appears to be a reliable and useful screening tool for Japanese PD patients with aspiration. As the NPV was

higher than the PPV in the SDQ-J, this questionnaire could potentially be used for early identification of severe dysphagia in patients with PD.”
“A nonintrusive, minimally invasive, needle-less technique to deliver liquids into soft targets is presented. The technique uses a laser-induced shock wave to drive a liquid microjet Bcl-2 protein at a very high speed such that the jet has sufficient momentum to penetrate soft targets. The method can be used to deliver liquid drugs into soft tissues in the human body. The liquid to be delivered is sandwiched between 200 mu m thick aluminum foil and a base plate with a perforation of 100 mu m diameter. The aluminum foil is ablated using an Nd:YAG laser beam in order to launch a shock wave through it. The shock wave from the foil is transmitted to the sandwiched liquid, which becomes pressurized by the shock propagation and emanates as a microjet through the perforation in the base plate. The microjet thus generated has a steady, average speed of over 200 m/s. The technique has been tested on gelatin models (5% gelatin), in which the jet penetrated to a depth of more than a millimeter. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

3 and 7 0 mu g/ml, respectively This is the first report of the

3 and 7.0 mu g/ml, respectively. This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of A. scabra.”
“Study Design. Analysis of lymphatic vessels in childhood and adult normal and pathological vertebral bone and intervertebral disc tissue.

Objective. To determine whether lymphatic vessels are present in spinal vertebrae and intervertebral discs in normal children and adults Pevonedistat (4-30 years) as well as in pathological lesions

of the spine.

Summary of Background Data. There is uncertainty regarding the presence or absence of lymphatic vessels in normal intervertebral discs and the role of lymphatics in the pathobiology of disc degeneration and infective, neoplastic, and other spinal pathology.

Methods. The presence of the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin, and LYVE-1 was determined immuno histochemically in normal cervical, thoracic, and lumbar disc and vertebral tissues of adults and children, as well as in a wide range of spinal disorders.

Results. Lymphatics were not found in intact normal intervertebral discs or within spinal vertebrae of children or adults. Lymphatics were present in the outer

periosteum and paraspinal ligaments and surrounding connective tissue. Lymphatic vessels were seen in infected and displaced degenerate disc tissue. Lymphatic vessels in vertebral this website bone were seen only when neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the spine were associated with vertebral destruction and the lesion extending through the bone cortex into surrounding connective tissue.

Conclusion. Lymphatics are not found in intact normal spinal vertebrae or the intervertebral discs of children or adults. Lymphatics in vertebral bone are found in pathological lesions of the spine when these Capmatinib clinical trial have extended beyond the normal anatomical confines of the vertebra or intervertebral disc; this most likely occurs by ingrowth of lymphatics from surrounding connective tissues. These findings strongly

suggest that metastatic tumor spread to the spine does not occur by lymphatics and that lymph node involvement of primary malignant spinal tumors occurs only after extraosseous spread.”
“A 41-year-old man underwent implantation of a right-sided implantable cardioverter defibrillator after removal of an infected left-sided system. Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing on the right-sided system failed to convert ventricular fibrillation at maximum device output (35 J) compared with a DFT of less than 15 J on the previous left-sided system. A single-coil lead was selectively placed into the hemiazygous vein, which courses leftward of the spine in a posterior-anterior projection, resulting in an improved shocking vector and reduction in DFTs to less than 25 J. (PACE 2012; 35:e10e12)”
“The aim of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Morus alba Linn. leaves extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatotoxicity.

The APSUA system can dissolve in 1% sodium carbonate solution eas

The APSUA system can dissolve in 1% sodium carbonate solution easily and completely. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3604-3612, 2011″
“Hood et al. have developed an approach of the two spin channel currents based on the Boltzmann equation to examine the magnetotransport properties of iron based trilayers. We applied this approach to study the magnetoresistance (MR) of Co/Cu multilayers. The in plane MR is calculated numerically S63845 at room temperature for correlated quasiperiodic roughness interfaces. Numerical results show the strong dependence of MR with the interface roughness, as well as the

influence of the proportion of the electrons removed from the reflected and transmitted beams at the Co/Cu interface on the behavior of the MR. We present also the evolution of the MR as function of copper interlayer thickness. Using this approach, we analyze the experimental results giving the antiferromagnetic maximum of the variation in MR with copper thickness. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544471]“
“Antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy has been associated

with adverse check details immunologic events including systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the development of polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM) associated with anti-TNF therapy is extremely rare. We experienced a case of a 48-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had anti-Jo-1 antibodies and interstitial lung disease but no previous history of PM/DM and who developed PM soon after the initiation of etanercept (ETN) therapy for RA. The patient recovered upon withdrawal from ETN and corticosteroid (CS) therapies. Only four reports of

PM/DM associated with anti-TNF therapy for RA could be found in the literature. The patients described in three of the four reports were positive for anti-Jo-1 antibodies before the initiation of anti-TNF therapy, and in all the cases, recovery occurred after Selleckchem Z-DEVD-FMK the cessation of anti-TNF-agent administration and CS therapy. These results suggest a relationship between the onset of PM/DM with anti-Jo-1 antibody and anti-TNF therapy for RA.”
“The UV-crosslinking as an established technology has been used in many industrial manufacturing processes. New application and technical specifications of UV-crosslinking lead to continuous development of tailor-made photoinitiators which can efficiently meet specific requirements. A new class of radical reactive photoinitiators based on s-triazine has been used for crosslinking of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives containing double bonds. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3621-3627, 2011″
“Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link.

EPN is common in persons

with diabetes or urinary tract o

EPN is common in persons

with diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Herein we report a case of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in a postpartum lady who had no evidence of diabetes or urinary tract obstruction. Management of this condition has traditionally been aggressive, and surgery has been considered mandatory. Our patient Tideglusib supplier was managed successfully with antibiotics and supportive measures alone.”
“BACKGROUND: A significant decrease in mean cardiomyocyte DNA content and increased numbers of diploid cardiomyocytes after unloading has been demonstrated, suggesting a numerical increase of cardiomyocytes. Despite a thorough search in that study, no mitoses explaining a potential net increase of cardiomyocytes has been observed. The heart harbors several stem cell populations, including c-kit (CD117)(+) stem cells and side population cells (SPC), which may proliferate after unloading and thus contribute to the generation of diploid cardiomyocytes. In this study we sought to determine, whether there is an increase of ABCG2(+) SPC and CD! 17 stem cells after unloading.

METHODS: In paired myocardial

samples (prior to and after LVAD), the number selleck kinase inhibitor of cells with immunoexpression of ABCG2, c-kit/CD117 and MEF-2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Their number was morphometrically determined and these data were correlated with the mean cardiomyocyte DNA content.

RESULTS: A significant increase of SPC and cells with coexpression of c-kit and Tariquidar chemical structure MEF-2 after unloading was observed from 0.00013% in CHF to 0.0011%, and 0.013% 10 0.035%, respectively after unloading (p = 0.001). A significant positive correlation between both SPC and cells with coexpression

of c-kit and MEF-2 expression was observed (p = 0.007 and 0.01). No correlation was found between the number of SPC and the mean cardiomyocyte DNA content.

CONCLUSIONS: SPC are increased significantly in the myocardium after ventricular unloading, suggesting a role for stem cell proliferation during “”reverse cardiac remodeling.”" These cells might proliferate and commit to different cell lineages, such as cardiomyocytes or endothelium, and thus ameliorate cardiac function. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:318-24 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The lack of use of a common grading system in reporting morbidity impedes estimation of the true risk to a right lobe living donor (RLLD). We report outcomes in 91 consecutive RLLD’s using the validated 5-tier Clavien grading and a quality of life (QOL) questionnaire. The median follow-up was 79 months. The donors were predominantly female (66%), 22 (24%) received autologous blood transfusions. Fifty-three complications occurred in 43 donors (47% morbidity), 19 (37%) were >= Grade III, biliary fistula (14%) was the most common.

There were no perioperative mortalities At mean follow-up of 39

There were no perioperative mortalities. At mean follow-up of 39 +/- 36 months, 3 patients have died, 2 from progressive cardiac allograft vasculopathy and 1 from lung cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival for this group of patients was see more 92%, 83%, and 83% at 1, 5, and 7 years, respectively.

Conclusions: Surgical revascularization for cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains a viable treatment option for appropriate patients and may be performed safely with good medium-term outcomes. However, patients remain at risk for disease progression and may require percutaneous

or surgical reintervention.”
“A FOCUSED REVIEW of sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat model, based on research conducted by the authors, is presented. We examine structural proteins carried distally in the axon by energy-requiring motor enzymes, using protein chemistry and molecular biology techniques in combination with immunohistochemistry. Relevant findings from other laboratories are cited and discussed. The general conclusion is that relatively large

amounts of actin and tubulin are required to construct a regenerating axon and that these materials mainly originate in the parent axon. The motor enzymes that carry these proteins forward as macromolecules include kinesin and dynein but probably also include myosin.”
“Objective: Prolonged venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support during transplantation provides reduction of pulmonary artery flow and allows for protective ventilation. This approach might Selleck AZD7762 have the potential to restore function of lungs that would be unsuitable for transplantation.

Methods: Left lung transplantation Sclareol was performed on 16 pigs. Lungs from brain-dead animals were stored for 22 hours at 4 degrees C. Recipients in group A (n = 8) underwent transplantation without cardiopulmonary support followed by ventilation with 10 mL/kg body weight tidal volume. Animals in group B (n = 8) underwent transplantation during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,

which was continued for 22 hours, and received low-tidal-volume (5 mL/kg body weight) ventilation. One hour after transplantation, the right lung was excluded. Graft function was compared immediately after exclusion of the contralateral lung (time point 1), 1 hour later (time point 2), and 1 hour after discontinuation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (time point 3).

Results: Four animals in group A did not reach time point 2; all died of pulmonary edema. All animals in group B survived, and at time point 3, the mean Pao(2) value was 323 +/- 129 mm Hg. At time point 2, oxygenation and lung compliance were higher in group B than in group A, whereas pulmonary artery pressure was lower. The same was true when comparing results of group B at time point 3 with results of group A at time point 2.