5% for rpoB and 99.5% for hsp65 genes. Group II consists of isolates AQ1GA1
and AQ1M06, which have similarity values to rpoB of Mycobacterium brumae of 95.1% and to hsp65 of Mycobacterium rutilum and Mycobacterium novocastrense of 92.5%. Group III consists of isolates AQ1GA3, AQ1GA4, AQ4GA9, AQ1GA10, and AQ4GA22, which have similarity values of 95.1% to rpoB of M. poriferae and Mycobacterium goodii and 95.8% to hsp65 of the isolates from Group I, a group closely related to M. poriferae. For the hsp65 gene, the sequence similarity value of 97% has been proposed Decitabine mw as a baseline for Mycobacterium species identification (McNabb et al., 2004). Based on the hsp65 gene alone, the sequence similarity between any isolate from Group II or Group III to any of the reference Mycobacterium species in the NCBI database is below 97%, suggesting that they could be considered to be unique mycobacteria, possibly comprising novel organisms at the species level. Phylogenetic trees of a concatenated alignment of the three genes showed that isolates from A. queenslandica formed a large clade with M. poriferae with a significant bootstrap confidence, suggesting that these isolates may represent a sponge-specific phylotype (Fig. 1). Within
this M. poriferae clade, they formed three individual clusters (Groups I, II, and III), suggesting the separation of these isolates into three species-level groups, a separation consistent with sequence similarity analysis. One of these clusters, Group I, contains M. poriferae itself and the M. poriferae-like strains of our isolates. Surprisingly, an isolate (FSD4b-SM) apparently closely related Roxadustat to the M. tuberculosis complex was recovered from another GBR sponge, Fascaplysinopsis sp. This isolate has similarity values of 91.3% to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium Teicoplanin africanum, and Mycobacterium parmense and 93.1% to the hsp65 gene of M. parmense. Phylogenetic trees showed a close association of the strain FSD4b-SM with the M. tuberculosis complex, forming a cluster with significant bootstrap
values. The strain of antimycobacterial Salinispora (AQ1M05) was isolated from the same specimen of A. queenslandica that yielded the mycobacteria strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of AQ1M05 shares 100% similarity to that of the S. arenicola type strain CNH643, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that this strain belongs to the species S. arenicola (data not shown). This S. arenicola strain was confirmed to produce rifamycin B and an additional probable rifamycin-like compound by LC–MS/MS analysis (Fig. 2). The antagonistic effect of the S. arenicola strain AQ1M05 was therefore evaluated against the representatives of each of the three Mycobacterium phylotypes (AQ1GA1, AQ4GA8, and AQ1GA9). The S. arenicola strain AQ1M05 produced antagonistic effects indicated by a growth inhibition zone against the Mycobacterium isolates AQ1GA1 and AQ4GA9, but not against the M.