Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chem

Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, PI3K inhibitor to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the

bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, 4EGI-1 cost a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified

that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive Selleckchem SCH727965 strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified

member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification.”
“Purpose of review\n\nTissue oximetry has been suggested as a noninvasive tool to continuously monitor and detect states of low body perfusion. This review summarizes recent developments and available data on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in children at risk for low perfusion.\n\nRecent findings\n\nDuring states of low cardiac output, cerebral blood flow and thus cerebral NIRS may be better preserved than in somatic tissue sites. Consequently, sites other than the frontal cerebral cortex have been investigated for a possible correlation with invasive measures of systemic perfusion and oxygenation (e. g. abdomen, flank, and muscle). The abdominal site seems preferable to the flank site NIRS (kidney region) application. In order to increase the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of tissue oximetry to detect systemic hypoperfusion, multisite NIRS such as a combination of cerebral and somatic site NIRS has been suggested. NIRS has also been used to assess systemic perfusion in patients undergoing first-stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

After 6 months storage,

After 6 months storage, JIB-04 the

nanodispersion showed unchanged particles size, morphology, crystal state, chemical structure, and dissolution. In vitro dissolution rate indicated that the nanodispersion could significantly enhance the dissolution rate when compared to the commercial available Sporanox capsules. The nanodispersion achieved 70% of drug dissolution in 10 min, whereas the Sporanox capsules only dissolved 20% during the same period.\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrated that high-gravity technique is a promising method for large scale production of nanodispersions to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.”
“Objective:\n\nThe aim of the present study was to observe the effects of 1.8GHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the protein expression of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) in vitro.\n\nMethods:\n\nThe hLECs were exposed and sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4W/kg) for 2h. After exposure, the proteins extracted from LECs were loaded on the Ettan MDLC system connected

to the LTQ-Orbitrap MS for screening the MEK inhibitor candidate protein biomarkers induced by RF. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of messenger RNA of candidate biomarkers. After the hLECs were exposed to 1.8GHz RF (SAR of 2, 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h, the Western blot assay was utilized to measure the expression levels of the above-screened candidate protein biomarkers.\n\nResults:\n\nThe results of shotgun proteomic analysis indicated that there were eight proteins with differential expression between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of qRT-PCR showed that there were three genes with expressional differences (valosin containing protein (VCP), ubiquitin specific peptidase 35 (USP35) and signal recognition

particle 68kDa (SRP68)) between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of Western blot assay exhibited that the expressional levels of VCP and USP35 proteins significantly increased and the expressional level of protein SRP68 significantly decreased in hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (SAR of 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h when compared with the corresponding sham groups (p<0.05).\n\nConclusion:\n\nThe shotgun proteomics technique can be applied to screen the proteins with differential expression between hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF and hLECs sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF, and three protein biomarkers associated with RF radiation were validated by Western blot assay.”
“Lanthipeptides are a group of posttranslationally modified peptide natural products that contain multiple thioether crosslinks. These crosslinks are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by addition of the thiols of Cys residues to the resulting dehydroamino acids.

A 55-year-old Caucasian man arrived at a hepatitis C clinic to di

A 55-year-old Caucasian man arrived at a hepatitis C clinic to discuss alternative treatment options for his hepatitis C virus (genotype 1a) infection, which did not respond to a 48-week course of peginterferon and ribavirin therapy. He was subsequently treated with interferon alfacon-1 9 mu g subcutaneously

daily plus ribavirin 200 mg orally twice daily. During treatment with BAY 63-2521 nmr interferon alfacon-1, he developed elevated hepatic transaminase levels despite a decrease in viral load. His hepatic transaminase levels returned to baseline when interferon alfacon-1 was discontinued and rose again upon rechallenge. Ribavirin was not the likely cause of the increase in transaminases since the patient previously tolerated it in combination with peginterferon. While activation of autoimmune hepatitis is a potential cause of acute decompensation in patients treated with interferons, it was not believed to be the case in this patient. Interferon alfacon-1 was determined to be the probable cause of the rise in hepatic transaminase levels in

this patient, since his levels declined when therapy was discontinued and rose dramatically once it was restarted. This case illustrates the importance of monitoring both viral loads and hepatic transaminase levels in patients with hepatitis C being treated with interferon therapy.\n\nConclusion. A patient with hepatitis C developed elevated hepatic transaminase levels despite showing an improvement in viral load after receiving interferon YM155 alfacon-1 and ribavirin.”
“Background: The swine is an essential model for carrying out preclinical research and for teaching complex surgical procedures. There is a lack of experimental models describing anatomical and surgical aspects of total pancreatectomy in the pig. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed on 10 white SNX-5422 mw male swine weighing 27-33 kg. The animals were premedicated with midazolam (0.4 mg/kg, i.m.) and ketamine (4 mg/kg, i.m.). Anesthesia

was induced with propofol (1-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and was maintained with propofol and fentanyl (0.3 mg and 0.1 mu g/kg/min, respectively, i.v.). The surgical period ranged from 44 to 77 min. The pancreas anatomy, and the main arterial, venous and pancreatic duct anatomy were assessed. Results: The pancreas anatomy was composed of 3 lobes, the ‘splenic’, ‘duodenal’ and ‘connecting’ lobe which is attached to the anterior portion of the portal vein. The splenic artery and the junction of the splenic vein and portal vein were divided. The left gastric artery was dissected and separated from its origin at the splenic artery. The head of the pancreas is disposed in a C shape. The pancreas was dissected and liberated from the right portion of the portal vein and the infrahepatic vena cava. The pancreas was separated from the duodenum preserving the pancreaticoduodenal artery, then we performed the total pancreatectomy preserving the duodenum, common bile duct and spleen.

Conclusion: These results show that elbow flexors maintain be

\n\nConclusion: These results show that elbow flexors maintain better strength than knee extensors through aging, even when comparing individuals with similar ADL levels.”
“The transfer curve of the giant-magnetoresistive (GMR) magnetic head represents its most important property in applications, and it is calculated by the micromagnetic modeling of the free layer and the pinned layer in the heart of the GMR head. Affections of the bias hard magnetic layer and the anti-ferromagnetic click here pinning layer are modeled by effective magnetic fields. The simulated transfer curve agrees with

experiment quite well, therefore the values of these effective magnetic fields can be determined by the model. A synthetic antiferromagnetic spin valve structure GMR head is also analyzed for comparison.”
“The over three-decade-long data record from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is ideal for studies of the Earth’s changing climate. However, the lack of on-board calibration requires that the solar channels be recalibrated after

launch. Numerous calibration studies have been conducted, but significant differences remain among the calibrations. This study is one effort to outline a path towards consensus calibration of the AVHRR solar channels. The characteristics of the polar orbiting satellites bearing the AVHRRs, the AVHRR instruments and data are described as they are related to calibration. A review of past and current calibration studies is also presented and examples of their lack of consensus shown. A list of consensus items is then provided that, Small molecule library chemical structure if followed by the AVHRR calibration community, should bring the various calibration methods to within the small percent difference required for long-term climate detection.”
“The pQCT-assessed Bone Strength Indices (BSI’s, SSI) depend on the product of a “quality” indicator, the cortical vBMD (vCtD), and a “design” indicator, one of the cross-sectional moments of inertia or related variables (MIs) in long bones. As the MIs vary naturally much more than the vCtD and represent different properties,

it could be that the variation of the indices might not reflect the relative mechanical impact of the variation of their determinant PRIMA-1MET factors in different individuals or circumstances. To understand this problem, we determined the vCtD and MI’s in tibia scans of 232 healthy men and pre- and post-MP women, expressed in SD of the means calculated for each group, and analyzed the independent influence of 1 SD unit of variation of each factor on that of the indices by multiple correlations. Results showed: 1. that the independent influence of the MIs on the indices was generally larger than that of the vCtD, and 2. that in post-MP women the influence of the vCtD was larger than it was in the other groups. This confirms the view that inter-individual variation of vCtD is comparatively small, and that mechanical competence of human bone is mostly determined by ‘design’ factors.

The time to first request for local anesthetic infusion was longe

The time to first request for local anesthetic infusion was longer in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). The median morphine consumption during the first 24 postoperative hours was less in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in analgesic consumption between Group 1 and Group 2. The median satisfaction score was higher in Group 1 compared with Groups 2 (P < 0.05) and 3 (P < 0.001).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: A combination of intraarticular ropivacaine,

morphine, and ketorolac followed by intermittent injections of ropivacaine as needed provided better pain relief, less morphine consumption, and improved AZD2014 in vivo patient satisfaction compared with the control group. The GW3965 datasheet group that received IV ketorolac consumed less morphine and was more satisfied with treatment than patients in the control group.”
“Aim: To retrospectively analyze the long-term toxicities of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (LDR-BT) with related prognostic factors for patients with early mobile tongue cancer (T1/2N0M0) at a minimum of 10 years’ follow-up. Patients and Methods: The records of 187 patients treated with LDR-BT between 1980 and 2000, out of whom 25

were treated with additional prior external beam irradiation, were reviewed. Results: Overall survival at 15 and 20 years was 88.4% and 76.2%, respectively. Complications included tongue ulcer (26%), tongue erosion (3%), tongue atrophy (2%), bone exposure (15%), and osteoradionecrosis (4%). No patient presented xerostomia or taste disorders. Multivariate analysis revealed that tongue ulcer and the use of spacer were significantly associated with bone exposure and osteoradionecrosis. Local recurrence was demonstrated in 15 (8%) cases, 93% of which were salvaged by operation. Fifty patients

(27%) experienced neck metastasis. Conclusion: LDR-BT is an acceptable treatment option, with low rates of long-term buy JQ1 toxicity.”
“We studied the profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) during development from hatched larvae to juveniles. Two TR alpha s (TR alpha A and TR alpha B)and one TR beta (TR beta A) cDNA clones were generated by RACE. The TR alpha A, TR alpha B and TR beta A cDNAs encoded 416,407 and 397 amino acid proteins with much higher homologies to the Japanese conger eel (Conger myriaster) TRs than to other fish TRs. In a transiently transfected Japanese eel cell line, Hepa-E1, the TRs showed thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent activation of transcription from the TH-responsive promoter. Four TR cDNA clones, including TR beta B reported in a previous study, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The TR mRNA levels in hatched larvae were determined. The two TR beta mRNAs were present at low levels but there was a peak in the TR alpha s during the larval stage before metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, the two TR alpha s both exhibited peaks and expression of the two TR beta s was higher than during the early growth stage.

The V1-V2 region of 16S rRNA and rDNA was analyzed by tag pyroseq

The V1-V2 region of 16S rRNA and rDNA was analyzed by tag pyrosequencing in a 3-y study of surface waters off

the Delaware coast. Over half of the bacterial taxa actively cycled selleck kinase inhibitor between abundant and rare, whereas about 12% always remained rare and potentially inactive. There was a significant correlation between the relative abundance of 16S rRNA and the relative abundance of 16S rDNA for most individual taxa. However, 16S rRNA: rDNA ratios were significantly higher in about 20% of the taxa when they were rare than when abundant. Relationships between 16S rRNA and rDNA frequencies were confirmed for five taxa by quantitative PCR. Our findings suggest that though abundance follows activity in the majority of the taxa, a significant portion of the rare community is active, with growth rates that decrease as abundance increases.”
“The interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells has been the cornerstone of KPT-8602 in vitro approaches to cancer immunotherapy. Antitumoral immune responses can be elicited by delivering cancer antigens to DCs. As antigen presenting cells, these DCs activate cancer antigen specific T cells. Whereas the first part of the review discusses methods for delivery of cancer vaccines to DCs, in this part the focus is on the potential role of nanoscopic devices for molecular imaging of these immune responses. Nanoscopic devices could

potentially deliver tracking molecules to DCs, enabling monitoring of DCs and/or T cell activation and tumoricidal activity during immunotherapy, using non-invasive imaging modalities such as nuclear imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET)), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging.”
“Background. Several mechanisms may associate tooth loss and related oral inflammation with cognitive impairment. The authors studied the relationship between tooth loss and cognitive

function.\n\nMethods. The REasons for Histone Methyltransf inhibitor Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study is a national longitudinal study of more than 30,000 African American and white adults 45 years or older. Data for tooth loss, cognitive function and potential confounding variables were available for 9,853 participants at the time of analysis. The authors used incremental linear regression modeling to investigate the cross-sectional association between self-reported tooth loss and cognitive function.\n\nResults. In unadjusted analysis (mean learning followed by recall; a level of significance of .05), the loss of six to 16 teeth and the loss of more than 16 teeth were associated with poorer cognitive function compared with the loss of no teeth. Attenuated associations persisted after the authors adjusted for demographic and systemic risk factors. The full model, which was adjusted for socioeconomic status (SES), revealed no association between tooth loss and cognitive function.\n\nConclusion.

A theoretical two-dimensional (2D) geometric model of knee pr

\n\nA theoretical two-dimensional (2D) geometric model of knee prosthesis contact,

with Dirichlet boundary conditions at both edges, and with a conformity index (CI) of 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 0.98, 0.99, 0.995, and 1.0, was used to calculate the spatiotemporal lubricant flow on a synovial fluid rheological model. With the instantaneous load as a source term, the Reynolds lubrication equation selleck inhibitor was subsequently solved following a finite volume approach in two dimensions and three dimensions.\n\nConformity strongly influenced the peak pressure, from 47 MPa with CI = 0 to 1.4 MPa with CI = 1, with a definite behavior change from CI = 0.96. The role of hydrodynamic lubrication was restricted to early steps of the stance phase. With CI < 0.96, there was a smooth maximum pressure decrease with increasing CI. In contrast, the maximum pressure fell abruptly with conformity > 0.96.\n\nThe present model suggested the limited modifying effect of hydrodynamic lubrication in total knee replacement systems. However, its role during the early stance phase, coupled with high conformity, helps significantly to decrease compressive stresses on the polyethylene, fostering

the beneficial effect of high conformity in a mixed lubrication regime. This beneficial effect may also be of great interest in total knee replacement systems based on materials with less deformation.”
“The Board of Parks and Recreation in Vancouver, BC

approved a smoke-free bylaw in the city’s parks, beaches and recreational facilities, effective 1 September Ion Channel Ligand Library 2010. We analyzed local news coverage and portrayal of the bylaw to understand the potential influence of news media on public perception of the bylaw in order to inform the media advocacy work of public health interest groups. We compiled a data set of newspaper articles (n = 90) and conducted a quantitative content analysis to examine content related to the outdoor smoke-free policy, including article slant, topics related to smoking and tobacco control, and any equity-related concerns raised. Newspaper coverage in Vancouver was largely supportive of the outdoor smoke-free bylaw. However, concerns over rights were frequently discussed in letters to the editor. Such equity concerns were rarely discussed in news articles, showing a potential disconnect between the concerns expressed in the media by members of the public and the coverage provided by print media.”
“Carabid beetles form rich and abundant communities in arable landscapes. Their generalist feeding behaviour and similar environmental requirements raise questions about the mechanisms allowing the coexistence of such species-rich assemblages. We hypothesized that subtle niche partitioning comes into play on spatial, temporal, or trophic basis.

0% and 18 6% in groups A and B, respectively (both P smaller than

0% and 18.6% in groups A and B, respectively (both P smaller than 0.01). The difference in the degree of improvement was not statistically significant between

DZNeP purchase the groups after three sessions of treatment. There were no significant side effects. ConclusionAtrophic acne scars improved in both groups without significant side effects. Additionally, the fractional laser was a more effective treatment option for acne scars, but the fractional radiofrequency microneedle device offered good adherence and short downtime.”
“A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans. Melatonin has a protective role in type 2 diabetes; however, its synthesis itself is affected in the disease. The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Therefore, plasma

melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point). Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated. We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed GW786034 in vivo than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats. This is the first time that melatonin synthesis is examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model in a diurnal manner. The present data unveil several reasons SNX-5422 clinical trial for a reduced melatonin secretion in diabetic animals and present

an important link in the interaction between melatonin and insulin. (Endocrinology 151: 2483-2493, 2010)”
“The pneumococcal chromosome encodes about 140 transporters, many of which are predicted to be involved in efflux. In order to critically evaluate pneumococcal efflux, a series of transporter mutants were constructed, and their phenotypes were assayed by disk diffusion, microdilution drug susceptibility testing (MIC testing), growth of cultures at sub-MIC concentrations, and phenotype microarray analysis. Mutants with mutations in seven ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, three multiantimicrobial extrusion (MATE) family efflux pumps, and one major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter were obtained in Streptococcus pneumoniae strain DP1004. The susceptibility of these 11 mutants to over 250 different substances was compared to that of the parent strain. Of the tested transporters, only the ABC transporter PatAB (SP2073-5) presented a clear multidrug resistance (MDR) profile, as the mutant showed significantly increased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, acriflavine, and berberine.

Additional actions of ghrelin (e g changes in appetite, nausea o

Additional actions of ghrelin (e.g. changes in appetite, nausea or endocrine functions) improve the possibility AZD4547 of using ghrelin receptor agonists to treat complex disorders such as functional dyspepsia. However, changes in endocrine functions increase the risk of unacceptable side effects. By comparison, the more restricted

prokinetic activity of motilin limits the therapeutic possibilities but improves the risk:benefit ratio. Compounds targeting both receptors are in development. Recently, additional peptides have been identified from preproghrelin (obestatin) and prepromotilin. These exert biological activity but their pathophysiological significance is unknown.”
“The psychological and physical demands of coping with medication side effects and comorbid illnesses can be overwhelming and may influence behaviors, such as medication adherence, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and exercise that, in turn, affect health outcomes. Cross-sectional and prospective studies among diverse populations of persons living with HIV suggest

that these behavioral mechanisms may be associated with HIV disease progression. The motivation to change behavior is often highest in the immediate aftermath of a stressor. However, over time the motivation to continue a particular behavior change is often challenged by habits, environmental influences, selleck kinase inhibitor and psychosocial factors. Furthermore, a number of studies suggest that behavioral mechanisms may mediate the relationship between psychosocial variables (e.g., stress, depression, coping, and social support) and disease progression in HIV. Thus, developing clinical interventions that address

these psychosocial factors and enhance protective health behaviors and reduce behaviors that convey risk to health are likely to lessen overall morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV/AIDS.”
“The purpose Emricasan supplier of this study was to determine whether baseline pupil size and pupil responses during visual scanning with eye-tracking technology could discriminate children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from mental age-matched and chronological age-matched controls. To this end, we used stimuli consisting in still color photographs presented centrally to the participant’s midline on a stimulus monitor. Each child was presented with a series of neutral faces, virtual faces (avatars) and different objects, separated by black slides. We recorded the mean pupil size and pupil size changes over time in each of the three categories of stimuli and during exposure to the black slides. Fifty-seven children participated in study (19 ASD, mean age 118 months: 19 mental age-matched controls, mean age 87 months; and 19 chronological age-matched controls, mean age 118 months). We compared the baseline pupil size and pupil responses during visual scanning among the three diagnostic groups.

Therefore, we investigated the effects of ONO-1301-loaded poly (D

Therefore, we investigated the effects of ONO-1301-loaded poly (D,L-lactic-CO-glycolic acid) microspheres (ONO-1301MS; to release ONO-1301

for 3 weeks) on the airway inflammation and remodeling in chronic house dust mite (HDM)-induced model. Balb/c mice were exposed to an HDM extract intranasally for 5 days/week for 5 consecutive weeks. The mice received a single subcutaneous injection of ONO-1301 MS or vehicle after 3 weeks of HDM exposure, followed by 2 additional weeks of HDM exposure. Forty-eight hours after the last HDM exposure, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was assessed and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. Lung specimens were excised and stained to check for goblet cell metaplasia, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy, and submucosal fibrosis. Mice receiving Selleckchem Napabucasin ONO-1301MS showed significantly lower airway hyperresponsiveness, airway eosinophilia, and induced T helper 2 cytokine production compared with mice receiving the vehicle. Histological findings such as goblet cell metaplasia, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy, and submucosal fibrosis were decreased in ONO-1301MS-treated mice compared with vehicle treated mice. A single administration of ONO-1301MS achieved sustained elevation of its circulating level for 3

weeks. These data suggest that a single administration of ONO-1301MS may suppress airway hyperresponsiveness, airway allergic inflammation, and development of airway remodeling CH5424802 order in chronic HDM-induced asthma model. This agent may be effective as an anti-inflammatory and remodeling drug in the practical treatment of asthma. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights Histone Methyltransf inhibitor reserved”
“Although the basic PubMed search is often helpful, the results may sometimes be non-specific.

For more control over the search process you can use the Advanced Search Builder interface. This allows a targeted search in specific fields, with the convenience of being able to select the intended search field from a list. It also provides a history of your previous searches. The search history is useful to develop a complex search query by combining several previous searches using Boolean operators. For indexing the articles in MEDLINE, the NLM uses a controlled vocabulary system called MeSH. This standardised vocabulary solves the problem of authors, researchers and librarians who may use different terms for the same concept. To be efficient in a PubMed search, you should start by identifying the most appropriate MeSH terms and use them in your search where possible. My NCBI is a personal workspace facility available through PubMed and makes it possible to customise the PubMed interface. It provides various capabilities that can enhance your search performance.”
“Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that replicate in the cytosol and express numerous proteins to subvert the host immunity.