If these cells are defective in or resistant to apoptotic death,

If these cells are defective in or resistant to apoptotic death, they would not be eliminated and Y-27632 manufacturer could, therefore, elicit autoimmune disease [18]. A number of genes are involved in T cell apoptosis in SLE, including Fas, FasL, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, myc, Nur 77 and p53 [19–21]. Among these, Fas and FasL increase T cell apoptosis, whereas Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL promotes T cell survival by blocking AICD [19–21]. The expression of Fas and FasL has been reported to be increased in SLE patients [15,22,23], leading to

the hypothesis that apoptotic death of T cells is excessive in SLE patients [24]. However, a discrepancy exists as some reports have also demonstrated that AICD of T cells is defective in SLE patients [25–27]. This discrepancy could be due to LDK378 research buy the relative abundance of anti-apoptotic molecules over pro-apoptotic proteins in SLE T cells or to other mechanisms that impede the T cell receptor- or Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway. In this study, we demonstrated first that oestradiol decreased

the AICD of SLE T cells, and secondly that oestradiol down-regulated the expression of FasL in activated SLE T cells both at the protein and mRNA levels. The Fas expression in activated T cells was also repressed by oestradiol. In contrast, testosterone increased FasL expression dose-dependently in SLE T cells. The inhibitory effect of oestradiol on FasL expression was mediated by a receptor-coupling event and, moreover, pretreatment of FasL-expressing cells with oestradiol inhibited the apoptosis of Fas-sensitive cells. These data provide evidence that oestrogen regulates the AICD of T cells by down-regulating FasL expression, suggesting that oestrogen Bacterial neuraminidase inhibition of T cell death may allow for the persistence of activated T cells, thereby exhibiting the detrimental action of oestrogen on SLE activity. Oestrogen has contradictory effects on different types of cells. Huber et al. demonstrated that in Coxsackie virus B3-speciifc T cell clones, 17β-oestradiol prevented Fas-dependent apoptosis by altering Bcl-2 expression while testosterone promoted it [28]. Oestrogen also reduced AICD of normal peripheral blood T cells stimulated

with anti-human CD3 antibody [29], a finding which is supportive of our results. However, in lupus-prone mice, treatment with E2 caused a decrease in thymic cellularity, but up-regulated several genes involved in apoptosis, including FasL and caspases in thymocytes of these mice [30]. In addition, 17β-oestradiol altered Jurkat lymphocyte cell cycling and induced apoptosis through suppression of Bcl-2 and cyclin A [29,31]. It has been also demonstrated that oestrogen protected bone loss by inducing FasL in osteoblasts, thereby decreasing osteoclast survival [32]. Therefore, it seems likely that oestrogen-induced decrease in cell survival is not a universal phenomenon, but is limited to primary T cells and can be different depending on cell types.

A composite symptom score of toilet voids, urgency severity, and

A composite symptom score of toilet voids, urgency severity, and UUI episodes has been developed for better capture of urgency severity per toilet voids.15 We have used a modified USS which was adapted from the IUSS and modified by adding

a score of 4: unable to hold and leak urine, patient has selleck screening library a wetting accident before arriving to the bathroom. The results show that the higher OABSS, the greater USS grade noted in the overall patients. From the therapeutic results, we can also observe a parallel decrease of OABSS and USS at 1 month after treatment with solifenacin compared with the baseline data.16 Voiding diary has been recommended as the most important tool to assess OAB as well as lower LEE011 urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).17 Urinary frequency and voided volume allow physicians to make an initial differential diagnosis between normal and abnormal voiding pattern and bladder conditions. If we

can add episodes of urgency and UUI in the voiding diary and classify the urgency episodes by the USS, we might be able to identify DO associated OAB from increased bladder sensation (IBS) as well as normal sensation of urge to void. A recent study using USS based on a 3-day voiding diary to correlate with urodynamic findings also revealed that higher USS and OAB wet were strongly correlated with urodynamic DO.18 The prevalence of DO was 50, 76 and 94% in patients with USS = 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated

that OAB wet, high USS and UUI episodes were significantly associated with the likelihood of patients with DO. Urodynamic DO was present in most patients with OAB wet (94.1%) or USS = 4 (95.5%). However, only 63.9% of OAB dry patients have DO. A high USS could predict the existence of urodynamic DO in OAB patients. Well-instructed and reported USS and voiding diary recording provides direct evidence of DO, which enables us to treat patients without invasive urodynamic study. Although several kinds of OAB symptom score or urgency perception score have been designed and proven validated to quantify patient perception of urgency severity,13,19 find more careful instruction of identification of the degree of USS is far more important. Voiding diary plus USS classification recording allows OAB patients to record urgency/UUI episodes accurately. These clinical data, especially OAB wet and UUI episodes in voiding diary, further reflect the urodynamic findings and provide evidence for initial pharmacological treatment. OAB symptoms in men could result from BOO or idiopathic DO (IDO). OAB symptoms are usually suggestive of DO identified on urodynamic study. DO is a urodynamic finding defined by involuntary detrusor contractions during the filling phase. Hyman et al. evaluatef the correlation of LUTS suggestive of DO with urodynamic findings in men and demonstrated that DO and BOO are commonly associated in men with LUTS.

The necessity of using at least two doses in early vaccination

The necessity of using at least two doses in early vaccination

is also recommended by other authors (Siegrist, 2001; Truszczyñski & Pejsak, 2007). It is unlikely that lack of specific lymphocyte proliferation in some pigs from group 3 (vaccinated at 8 weeks) was a result of immaturity of the immunological system at this age, especially when we look at the results obtained in group 5 (vaccinated at 1 and 8 weeks). A strong proliferative response observed in group 6, 2 weeks after vaccination as well as at 20 weeks of life, in contrast to group 4, confirmed that buy Osimertinib vaccination at the first week of life may initiate formation of T-memory cells and that these cells are responsible for a stronger response at the next contact with antigen. These data show that, although some component of their immune system may not be fully competent at such an early age as 7 days, neonate piglets were nevertheless capable of mounting an effective memory T-cell response following vaccination with live ADV. As shown in groups 3 and 5, ADV sensitization of lymphocytes was evoked by vaccination despite the presence of MDA, but the persistence of such early induced immunity is not sufficient for the whole production cycle. This may suggest that the number of long-lived postvaccinal memory T

cells could be lower than in animals vaccinated later or when no maternal antibodies existed. Similar results were shown after analysis of IFN-γ secretion in response to recall antigen. Besides its antiviral activity, IFN-γ plays a role in selleck inhibitor immunomodulatory functions, such as the increase of the expression of SLA I (which enhances the cytotoxic activity) and SLA II (which favors cell cooperation in antigen presentation and antibody production). The production of IFN-γ by PBMC in response to recall antigen (groups 3 and 5) was only significant 2 weeks after vaccination. In cultures of PBMC derived from

animals from groups 3 and 5 at 20 weeks of life, the production of this cytokine was lower than before, whereas in groups 2, 4 and 6 (vaccinated in the face of lower MDA titers) there was no significant decrease in secretion. IL-4 is a cytokine that induces differentiation Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin of naïve helper T cells to Th2 cells. This cytokine stimulates antibody production (mainly IgG1 isotype). In the present study there was no excretion of this cytokine after or without ADV stimulation. Similar results were obtained by Fisher et al. (2000). Those authors evaluated the cytokine gene expression in PBMC of naïve and immune pigs. IL-4-specific mRNA was not detectable either in nonstimulated or in ADV-exposed porcine PBMC. The results of the present study indicate that early priming of T cells with ADV-MLV in the face of MDA could be successful, but that to obtain a long-term proliferative response at least one booster dose of vaccine, given at the proper time, is required.

This result is largely driven by lower staff

costs, and b

This result is largely driven by lower staff

costs, and better health outcomes for survival and quality of life. Expanding the proportion of haemodialysis patients managed at home is likely to produce cost savings. “
“Aim:  To summarize the clinical and pathological features of renal amyloidosis in order to achieve early diagnosis. Methods:  ABT-737 mw The clinical and pathological data of 32 patients with renal amyloidosis, diagnosed by renal biopsy in one renal centre, were retrospectively analyzed. Immunohistochemistry of amyloid A protein and immunoglobulin light chains was further performed on the renal specimens for further classification. Results:  Twenty-four out of the 32 patients (75%) were not considered to have renal amyloidosis by local physicians; 91.7% (22/24) of them had at least one of the following signs: bodyweight loss, organ enlargement and decreased blood pressure. Twenty-nine

out of the 32 Selleckchem Talazoparib patients (90.6%) were over 40 years, 30 patients (93.8%) had nephrotic syndrome, and 21 patients (65.6%) were found to have monoclonal light chain in serum or urine by immunofixation. Six patients (18.8%) were negative by Congo red stain and were diagnosed as having early renal amyloidosis by electron microscopy. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed as having AL amyloidosis, two were suspected of having AL amyloidosis, one had AA amyloidosis and the status of the remaining patient was undetermined. Conclusion:  Renal amyloidosis is frequently neglected by local physicians in China. Middle-aged nephrotic patients with weight loss, organ enlargement and monoclonal light chains in serum

or urine should be highly suspected of the disease. Renal biopsies, especially electron microscopy, play a crucial SPTLC1 role in the early diagnosis of renal amyloidosis. “
“We present a case of an unsensitized patient with end-stage kidney disease secondary to atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) with mutations in CD46/MCP and CFH who developed severe, intractable antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) unresponsive to therapy post kidney transplantation. There were no haematological features of thrombotic microangiopathy. The patient received standard induction therapy and after an initial fall in serum creatinine, severe ABMR developed in the setting of urosepsis. Despite maximal therapy with thymoglobulin, plasma exchange and methylprednisolone, rapid graft loss resulted and transplant nephrectomy was performed. Luminex at 4 weeks showed a new DSA and when repeated after nephrectomy showed antibodies to each of the 5 mismatched antigens with high MFI. The rate of recurrence of disease in patients with aHUS referred for transplantation is 50% and is associated with a high rate of graft loss. It is dependent in part on the nature of the mutation with circulating factors CFH and CFI more likely to cause recurrent disease than MCP which is highly expressed in the kidney.

TAO may be an autoimmune disorder, probably initiated by an unkno

TAO may be an autoimmune disorder, probably initiated by an unknown antigen in the vascular endothelium, possibly a component of nicotine. The presence of different antibodies such as anti-nuclear, anti-elastin, anti-collagens I and III and anti-nicotine antibodies, as well as identification of deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgC3 and IgC4 in the blood vessels of patients, provide evidence for the theory of the immune character of TAO. Accordingly, the formation of immune complexes, activation of cell-mediated phagocytosis and the release of toxins stimulated by nicotine

are the main agents responsible for vascular damage [14]. Regardless of the time of disease onset, recent studies have shown a significant increase in the levels of components of the kinin system observed in patients when TAO active smokers were compared with TAO ex-smokers (P < 0·01 MK-8669 concentration for all analysed parameters). Kinin

can stimulate proinflammatory cytokines (for example, TNF-α and IL-1β), and activation of the kinin system in TAO patients may indicate the involvement of vasodilatation in an attempt to control Selleckchem AZD3965 vascular changes, thereby favouring the deposition of immune complexes in the vascular level due to nicotine stimulation. Moreover, our results corroborate the idea that TAO can be an autoimmune disorder with specific mechanisms [15]. Additionally, to reinforce the autoimmune theory, increased matrix metalloperoxidase 9 (MMP-9) NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase and reduced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) activity has been found in TAO patients, especially in active smokers compared with non-TAO patients. These data suggest that compounds in the smoke could activate MMP-9 production or inhibit TIMP-1 activity [16]. The cytokines are mediators necessary

to drive the local inflammatory response to infection and damage by promoting proper wound-healing. However, the over-production of proinflammatory cytokines from the lesion may manifest systemically with haemodynamic instability or metabolic disorders. After injury or serious infections, an exacerbated response and persistent Th1 cytokines may contribute to target organ damage, leading to multiple organ failure and death. Th2 cytokines can alleviate some of these adverse effects [11]. In inflammatory diseases, immunological injury is implicated strongly in the disruption of the vascular barrier, primarily through the secretion of cytokines which stimulate the proliferation or metabolic activity of several components. In this study, we observed that various plasma levels were increased significantly in TAO patients when compared to controls.

Frequencies of individual genotypes were similar to those reporte

Frequencies of individual genotypes were similar to those reported previously in other Caucasian control populations [23–25]. We observed more G-allele carriers in the severe Compound Library AH patient

group than in other ALD patients. Moreover, among AH patients, the G-allele was more frequent in the severe form of the disease (Table 3a). However, the CCL2 polymorphism −2518G-allele was not associated with patient survival. Indeed, there was no difference in 90-day survival between G-carriers and non-G-carriers patients in the entire population of ALD (88·1% ± 3·5% versus 88·4% ± 3·2%, P = 0·909), nor in a subgroup of patients with alcoholic hepatitis (83·8% ± 5·6% versus 81·6% ± 5·6%, P = 0·792) and severe alcoholic hepatitis (75·9% ± 9·4% versus 64·3% ± 12·8%, P = 0·528). We performed CCR2 190 A/G polymorphism genotyping in this cohort BGB324 cost of ALD patients and we found no difference between genotypes (Table 3b). In the present study, we show that plasma levels and hepatic expression of CCL2 are increased in a large cohort of biopsy-proven ALD patients, particularly those with severe

AH. Interestingly, this CCL2 over-expression is associated with parameters of disease severity such as hepatic venous pressure gradient and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We found no relationship between plasma levels or hepatic expression of CCL2 and 90-day survival. Nevertheless, these results should be viewed with caution, as many patients were lost to follow-up. We also measured CCL2 plasma levels in patients with severe AH before Cepharanthine and after 7 days of steroid therapy, and we showed a trend towards decreased CCL2 plasma levels after treatment. However, the reason why the CCL2 plasma level decreased after steroid treatment is not clear, and further studies on a large cohort of AH patients are required. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCL2 liver expression is correlated with neutrophil infiltrates and IL-8 liver expression. CCL2 is a CC chemokine which is chemotactic for monocytes and lymphocytes. Arguments in the literature suggest that, under inflammatory conditions, neutrophils undergo phenotypic changes enabling them

to respond to chemokines that are functionally inactive under resting conditions [26,27]. However, we showed that circulating neutrophils of ALD patients did not express CCR2, suggesting that CCL2 does not directly recruit neutrophils via this receptor. Nevertheless, CCL2 could play a role in neutrophil recruitment via a receptor other than CCR2; indeed, a recent study showed, in an experimental model of ALD, that CCL2-deficient mice were protected against alcoholic liver injury independently of CCR2. Interestingly, KC/IL-8 mRNA liver expression was decreased significantly in alcohol-fed CCL2-deficient mice [16]. In agreement with those results, but in humans, we show a very strong correlation between CCL2 and IL8 mRNA liver expression.

All experiments were performed in triplicate Percentage of cytot

All experiments were performed in triplicate. Percentage of cytotoxicity was calculated as follows: [experimental counts per minute (cpm) −  spontaneous cpm]/[total cpm − spontaneous cpm] × 100. Freshly isolated PBMCs were stimulated with 25 ng/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; Sigma-Aldrich) and 1 µg/ml ionomycin (Sigma-Aldrich) at 37°C in humidified 7% CO2 for 4 h. To block cytokine

secretion, brefeldin A (Sigma) [27] was added to a final concentration of 10 µg/ml. After addition of stimuli, the surface staining was performed with anti-CD4-PC5 (13B8·2), anti-CD8-PerCP (SK1) and anti-CD56-PC5 BGJ398 chemical structure (N901) (Beckman Coulter). Selleck MAPK Inhibitor Library Subsequently, the cells were permeabilized, stained for intracellular IFN-γ and IL-4 using the FastImmuneTM system (BD Pharmingen), resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% paraformaldehyde (PFA),

and analysed on a flow cytometer (≈ 10 000 gated events acquired per sample). ELISPOT assays were performed as described previously with the following modifications [28–30]. HLA-A24 restricted peptide epitopes, squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 2 (SART2)899 (SYTRLFLIL), SART3109 (VYDYNCHVDL), multi-drug resistance protein 3 (MRP3)765 (VYSDADIFL), MRP3503 (LYAWEPSFL), MRP3692 (AYVPQQAWI), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)403 (KYIQESQAL), AFP434 (AYTKKAPQL), AFP357 (EYSRRHPQL), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)167 (AYQVCGPPL) (unpublished), hTERT461 (VYGFVRACL) and hTERT324 (VYAETKHFL) were used in this study. Negative controls consisted of an HIV envelope-derived peptide (HIVenv584). Positive controls consisted of 10 ng/ml PMA (Sigma) or a CMV pp65-derived

peptide (CMVpp65328). The coloured spots were counted with a KS ELISPOT Reader (Zeiss, Tokyo, Japan). The number of specific spots was determined by subtracting the number of spots in the absence of antigen from the number of spots in its presence. Responses were considered positive if more than 10 specific spots were detected http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/ch5424802.html and if the number of spots in the presence of antigen was at least twofold greater than the number of spots in the absence of antigen. Serum cytokine and chemokine levels were measured using the Bioplex assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). Briefly, frozen serum samples were thawed at room temperature, diluted 1:4 in sample diluents, and 50 µl aliquots of diluted sample were added in duplicate to the wells of a 96-well microtitre plate containing the coated beads for a validated panel of 27 human cytokines and chemokines (cytokine 27-plex antibody bead kit) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Several EM techniques have been used to investigate

Several EM techniques have been used to investigate BVD-523 biofilms, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as the predominant choice (Sutton et al., 1994; Priester et al., 2007; Sangetha et al., 2009). Conventional SEM methods are far from optimal for investigation of water-containing specimens such as biofilms, because the technique requires dehydration

of the sample. In most cases, the choice of microscope is based on availability and not the suitability. We here present a micrograph survey of P. aeruginosa biofilm development with four different SEM techniques: standard SEM, cryo-SEM and environmental-SEM as well as focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM. All bacteria were grown in ABtrace minimal medium containing 0.3 mM glucose for continuous cultures and 0.5% glucose for batch cultures, as previously described (Bjarnsholt et al., 2005). Planktonic cultures were grown in shake flasks at 37 °C. Continuous biofilms were cultivated in once-through flow chambers, perfused with sterile media, as previously described (Bjarnsholt et al., 2005). The biofilms were imaged by SEM as previously described (Qvortrup et al., 1995). Briefly, bacteria were harvested and fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% OsO4, critical point–dried using CO2 and

sputter-coated with gold according to standard procedures. Specimens for SEM were investigated with a Philips XL Feg30 SEM operated at 2–5 kV accelerating RG7204 in vitro tension. Glass-pieces from the flow cell were broken and plunge-frozen in slushed liquid nitrogen at −210 °C and transferred in a special transfer container, which is under continuous vacuum to the cryo-preparation chamber attached to the Quanta 3D FEG (FEI). The sample temperature was raised to −95 °C for approximately 3 min to sublime any condensed ice from the surface

gained during transfer. The temperature of the sample was then reduced to −125 °C. see more Essentially, to avoid charging problems while searching for a suitable site, the sample was sputter-coated with platinum for 160 s, giving a thickness of approximately 15 nm. The sample was then passed through the transfer lock to the FIB-SEM cryo-stage, which was maintained at −125 °C. Imaging was performed using an accelerating voltage of 3–10 kV. Biofilm containing glass-pieces from the flow cell were broken of and were mounted onto double-sided carbon tape on a small, circular metal stub, and samples were imaged with a Quanta 3D FEG SEM (FEI) operated in ESEM mode. The biofilm samples were viewed with a gaseous secondary electron detector in a humidified environment. The system was operated under high accelerating voltages (5–15.0 kV), and the low chamber pressures were gained with a special ESEM final lens insert, so a maximum pressure of 2700 Pa could be obtained. The biofilms were fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 phosphate buffer (pH = 7.2) and postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide with 1.

5) No differences between the distribution of arteries in both g

5). No differences between the distribution of arteries in both groups were found. As presented in Table 2, except the maximal axial values 1 mm and 2 mm distal the bifurcation, the minimal axial value 3 mm proximal, and the maximal Selleck Cobimetinib perpendicular value 1mm proximal to the bifurcation were all significantly different. The significance level (p-value < 0.001) was superior in the investigated OES-technique (Table 2). A review of the literature reveals that only few publications are found analyzing the flow in microsurgical end-to-side anastomoses, though a plethora of technical variations

exist.[11, 14, 15, 27, 28] Flow behaviour in approximately true-to-scale silicone rubber models of a conventional technique for end-to-side anastomosis[9] and end-to-side anastomosis using the OES-technique were compared in this study. The measured flow velocities and rates in this experiment were in accordance with intraoperative measurements as described in the literature and the velocity calculations were not affected by the Womersley parameter, since it was

smaller than three.[24, 29-31] The Womersley parameter[32] is a dimensionless parameter in biofluid mechanics and expresses the pulsatile flow frequency in relation to viscous effects and is used for scaling experimental setups.[32-34] Many scientists have studied the flow behaviour in bends and bifurcations by using rigid or Selleckchem BGB324 simplified models.[35-37] By using the true-to-sclae silicone rubber model, geometry and vessel behavior as well as the fluids used were correct in comparison to human blood vessels as previously published.[22, 38-40] In both models a velocity drop of the maximal axial component between the cross-sections 3 and 1 mm proximal to the reference point was seen (conventional technique model 28.62% and

Cell press OES-model 30.67% of the initial axial velocity component). This velocity drop of the axial component in the main vessel was accompanied with a velocity increase of the perpendicular velocity component, in the branching vessel (conventional technique model 73.8% and 192.45% in the OES-model), representing the flow into the branching vessel, The “perpendicular velocity component” in the branching vessel equates the real axial flow direction of the branching vessel, since the LDA measurements were only performed in x-z-axis. This measured velocity increase was probably due to an increased cross-sectional area in the end-to-side anastomosis of the OES-model. Sen et al. described another end-to-side technique with an increase of the cross-sectional area by performing a diamond-shaped arteriotomy.[15] For further evaluation they performed mathematical analyses to verify their considerations.


ATP activates the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (


ATP activates the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), which acts as a cation channel to rapidly induce potent K+ efflux and a complete collapse of normal ionic gradients 32. P2X7R activation also recruits pannexin-1 which mediates the formation of a pore that has been implicated in inflammasome activation 33. However, the concentration of ATP that is required for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro far exceeds that found physiologically in the extracellular milieu. Thus, the relevance of the ATP-mediated pathway for inflammasome activation in vivo is unclear. Several pathogenic microorganisms including certain viruses, fungi and bacteria induce the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. For Enzalutamide example, NLRP3 regulates IL-1β production in response to influenza A, Sendai virus and vaccinia virus Ankara 34–38. In the case of influenza A virus, Akt inhibitor dsRNA production has been suggested to mediate inflammasome activation, although this remains controversial 34, 39, 40. One possibility is that dsRNA primes the NLRP3 inflammasome 29, 30. The importance of NLRP3 in host

defense against influenza A virus is also unclear because conflicting findings have been observed regarding its role in the control of viral burden, lung pathology and adaptive immune responses 34–36. The NLRP3 inflammasome is also critical for the regulation of IL-1β in response to the fungus Candida albicans41, 42. Importantly, the

NLRP3 inflammasome regulates fungal burden and survival in mice infected with C. albicans, which may be explained Tolmetin through IL-1β production and IL-1R signaling 41, 42. How fungal infection leads to inflammasome activation is unclear, but Syk, a tyrosine kinase acting downstream of multiple ITAM-coupled fungal PRR, was found to be important in both pro-IL-1β induction and caspase-1 activation 42. Caspase-1 activation was impaired in LPS-stimulated macrophages infected with the C. albicans, suggesting that Syk can direct the activation of NLRP3 independently of priming. One possibility is that Syk mediates ROS production 42 to induce inflammasome activation. Clearly more work is needed to understand the link between Syk and the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the host defense response against Plasmodium berghei, a mouse model of malaria induced by Plasmodium falciparum, is controversial. β-hematin, a synthetic compound of hemozoin, a polymer resulting from the degradation of erythrocyte hemoglobin by the parasite, induces caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production through NLRP3 43–45. β-hematin activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome may involve the tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn 43. Interestingly, NLRP3-deficient mice show mild protection against plasmodium infection when compared to WT mice 44, 45.