conducted a study comparing the use of milk, soy protein, or carbohydrate drinks by 56 young untrained males CB-5083 in vivo . Subjects were assigned to one of three groups; each consumed
500-milliliter (mL) of a) fat-free milk, b) an isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and macronutrient- matched soy-protein beverage, or c) an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage immediately following and again one hour after resistance exercise. Body composition, muscle hypertrophy, and strength measurements were recorded at baseline and three days following 12 weeks of training 5 d.wk-1. The group using milk post-workout had significantly increased body weight and decreased body fat versus the other two groups, indicating an increase in lean body mass (LBM). Selleck Repotrectinib Results indicated that consumption of fat-free milk post-workout was statistically more effective than soy protein in promoting increases in LBM (p<0.01), increases in type II muscle fiber area (p<0.05) and decreases in body fat (p<0.05) . These results were similar to those found by Wilkinson et al. . Researchers assigned Selleckchem SB525334 eight weight-trained men to either 500 mL of skim milk or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric, and macronutrient-matched soy-protein beverage following resistance exercise . A crossover design was used so that all participants
consumed either milk or soy on their first trials and alternated to the other supplement on the second trials. Trials were separated by one week. Both protein drinks increased protein synthesis and promoted increases
in muscle mass; however, the consumption of skim milk had a significantly greater impact on the development of muscle mass than did consumption of the soy protein . Both Hartman et al.  and Wilkinson et al.  demonstrated the superiority of milk proteins over soy protein in building muscle mass. This may be due to the fact that soy has a lower BV than milk (74 versus 91 respectively), resulting in lower bioavailability, thus providing less protein synthesis in body tissues. Rankin et al. studied the effects of milk versus carbohydrate consumption post-resistance exercise on body composition and strength . Nineteen untrained men were randomly assigned to one of two groups that provided 5 kcal.kg-1 G protein-coupled receptor kinase body weight of either chocolate milk, or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. Subjects completed whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and strength assessments prior to and after following a 3 d.wk-1 for 10-weeks weightlifting protocol. Results indicated that both groups had increases in LBM and strength, but there were no significant between-group differences . The addition of a control group to this study would have helped determine whether increases in strength were due solely to the weightlifting program or to the combination of exercise and supplementation.