The single layer polymer solar cell (PSC) fabricated with a devic

The single layer polymer solar cell (PSC) fabricated with a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P(BDT-TDPPDT) or P(BDTT-TDPPDT):PC70BM+DIO/Al offers a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.74% and 6.57%, respectively. The high photovoltaic parameters such as fill factor (approximate to 72%), open circuit voltage (V-oc, approximate to 0.90 V), incident photon to collected electron efficiency AL3818 purchase (approximate to 76%), and PCE obtained for the PSCs made from polymers P(BDT-TDPPDT) and P(BDTT-TDPPDT) make them as promising large band gap polymeric candidates for PSC application. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem.

2014, 52, 3564-3574″
“Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal-DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in surrounding farms. We evaluated the

genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive techniques to obtain DNA that was later amplified for five microsatellite markers. We sampled 23 wolves: 10 with the noninvasive method, three captured in traps, six road-killed, and four rescued in urban areas. In Aguas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE) we also used samples from six specimens captured between 1997 and 1998 for a temporal comparison. For maned wolves, non-invasive techniques are affordable and easier to conduct in the field, while laboratory costs are much lower for invasive samples. LOXO-101 inhibitor Hence, a sampling strategy combining both techniques may provide an interesting approach for molecular ecology studies requiring comprehensive coverage of local individuals.

On the basis of such integrated sampling scheme, VX-680 research buy our analyses indicated that none of the investigated populations currently present deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations or indication of inbreeding. Furthermore, in ESECAE there was no reduction in genetic diversity during the last 9 years. Overall, maned wolves did not present evidence of genetic structuring among the three sampled PAs. These results thus indicate that individual exchange among PAs is still occurring at sufficient rates to avoid differentiation, and/or that the recent fragmentation in the region has not yet produced measurable effects in the genetic diversity of maned wolves.”
“Chromosomal integration of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a novel situation found in a small percentage of individuals. While active HHV-6 infection is treatable using antivirals, the abnormally high level of HHV-6 DNA found in chromosomal integration of HHV-6 (Cl-HHV-6) is not affected by such drugs. Stored DNA samples taken originally for detection of fusion genes and minimal residual disease from 339 pediatric patients treated for leukemia in the Czech Republic between the years 1995-2007 were tested retrospectively.

Increased expression of autophagic markers like MAP-LC3-II, Becli

Increased expression of autophagic markers like MAP-LC3-II, Beclin 1 and autophagic modulator, DRAM confirmed the occurrence of the phenomenon. INCB28060 molecular weight Reduced vacuole formation was observed upon treatment with 3-MA, a known PI3 kinase inhibitor, only at 32 h and was ineffective if treated later, as high ROS level was already attained. Treatment of F111 and F-HABP07 cells with bafilomycin A1 further indicated an increase in autophagosome formation along with autophagic degradation in HABP1 overexpressed fibroblasts. Comparison between normal fibroblast (F111) and F-HABP07 cells indicate reduced level of polymeric HA, its depolymerization and perturbed HA-HABP1 interaction in

F-HABP07. Interestingly, supplementation of polymeric HA, an endogenous ROS scavenger, in the culture medium prompted reduction in number of vacuoles in F-HABP07 along with drop in ROS level, implying that excess ROS generation triggers initiation of autophagic

vacuole formation prior to apoptosis due to overexpression of HABP1. Thus, the phenomenon of autophagy takes place prior to apoptosis induction in the HABP1 overexpressing cell line, F-HABP07.”
“Purpose: To design and optimize trajectory-based, noncoplanar subarcs for volumetric modulated arc therapy selleck (VMAT) deliverable on both Varian TrueBEAM system and traditional accelerators; and to investigate their potential advantages for treating central nervous system (CNS) tumors.\n\nMethods and Materials: To guide the computerized selection of beam trajectories consisting of simultaneous couch, gantry, and collimator motion, a score function was implemented to estimate the geometric overlap between targets and organs at risk for each couch/gantry angle combination. An initial set of beam orientations is obtained as a function of couch and gantry angle, according to a minimum search of the score function excluding zones of collision. This set is grouped into multiple continuous and extended subarcs subject to mechanical limitations using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. After determination of couch/gantry trajectories, a principal component analysis selleck inhibitor finds the collimator angle

at each beam orientation that minimizes residual target organ at risk overlaps. An in-house VMAT optimization algorithm determines the optimal multileaf collimator position and monitor units for control points within each subarc. A retrospective study of 10 CNS patients compares the proposed method of VMAT trajectory with dynamic gantry, leaves, couch, and collimator motion (Tra-VMAT); a standard noncoplanar VMAT with no couch/collimator motion within subarcs (Std-VMAT); and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans that were clinically used.\n\nResults: Tra-VMAT provided improved target dose conformality and lowered maximum dose to brainstem, optic nerves, and chiasm by 7.7%, 1.1%, 2.3%, and 1.7%, respectively, compared with Std-VMAT.

No evident differences were found between groups considering othe

No evident differences were found between groups considering other important non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors selleck products of stroke.\n\nConclusions: Small differences between risk factors of ischaemic stroke profiles in patients with early and late recurrent episodes do not allow us to distinguish unequivocally a group of patients with better prognosis regarding the time of recurrent stroke. Use of antiplatelet drugs, either systematic

or non-systematic, and lacunar stroke are independent, positive prognostic factors of delay of potential recurrent stroke.”
“This paper presents proteomic evidence for the non-survival of Anabaena doliolum at elevated temperatures (43 degrees C, 48 degrees C, 53 degrees C and 58 degrees C), when photosystem II (PSII), carbon fixation, ATP and NADPH contents were significantly decreased. A total of 215, 200, 261, 229 and 99 spots were clearly visible in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) gels of the cyanobacterium from the control and those subjected to 1 h treatment at the above temperatures, respectively. Proteomic analysis using 2DE, MALDI-TOF MS/MS and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of Anabaena exposed to the above temperatures displayed significant and reproducible alterations in 13 proteins homologous to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Selleck LY2157299 (GAPDH), fructose-1,

6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), keto-acid reductoisomerase, phycocyanin-alpha-chain, peroxiredoxin, ATP synthase-beta-chain, RNA binding protein, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), GroES, phycoerythrocyanin-alpha-chain, AhpC/TSA family and phycobilisome rod-core linker (PBS-RCL) protein. Except Prx, GroES and ATP synthase-beta-chain, see more other metabolic and oxidative stress proteins were down-regulated at temperatures

over 48 degrees C. The down-regulation of FBA, GAPDH, and FBPase beyond 48 degrees C possibly disrupted glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle, thereby leading to the death of Anabaena above 48 degrees C. Notwithstanding the above, an appreciable down-regulation of NDPK (involved in protein phosphorylation) and AhpC/TSA (specific scavenger of reactive sulphur species), may lead to loss of signalling and accumulation of reactive sulphur species, respectively, which contribute further to temperature stress. Appreciable induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), required for maintenance of metabolic proteins during thermal stress, as well as metabolic proteins up to 48 degrees C and their down-regulation at 53 degrees C and 58 degrees C suggested a close interlinking of these proteins. However, down-regulation of HSP60, HSP26 and HSP 16.6 appears to be responsible for cell death.”
“The intrinsic circadian clock requires photoentrainment to synchronize the 24-hour solar day. Therefore, light stimulation is an important component of chronobiological research.

Overall median survival was histology specific (osteosarcoma, 11

Overall median survival was histology specific (osteosarcoma, 11 months; Ewing sarcoma, 26 months; chondrosarcoma, 37 months; chordoma, 50 months) and correlated with extent of local tissue invasion or metastasis at presentation. Presence of metastasis was associated with marked decrease in survival (P < 0.001) for all tumor types. For patients with isolated spine tumors, neoplasms confined within the periosteum were associated with improved overall survival independent of age, radiotherapy, or surgical resection for chordoma (hazard ratio [HR], 0.50; P = 0.08), chondrosarcoma

(HR, 0.62; P = 0.03), Selleck APR-246 and osteosarcoma (HR, 0.68; P = 0.05), but not Ewing sarcoma (HR, 0.62; P = 0.27).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The preoperative radiographic recognition of local tissue invasion

may identify patients with a more aggressive tumor and help guide the level of aggressiveness in subsequent treatment strategies.”
“A 74-year-old right-handed woman without cognitive impairment suddenly developed nonfluent aphasia. Brain MRI showed acute infarction in the right frontal lobe and insula without involvement of the corpus callosum. A neurological examination demonstrated not only transcortical motor aphasia, but also ideomotor apraxia and right hand predominant constructional apraxia (CA). To date, right hand PND-1186 in vitro predominant CA has only been reported in patients with corpus callosum lesions. The right hand predominant CA observed in our patient may be associated with the failure to transfer information on the spatial structure from the right hemisphere to the motor cortex of the left hemisphere.”
“gamma-Secretase is an intramembrane-cleaving protease responsible for the generation of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Recently, a series of compounds called.-secretase modulators (GSMs) has been shown to decrease the levels of long toxic A beta species

(i.e., A beta 42), with a concomitant elevation of the production of shorter A beta species. In this study, we show that a phenylimidazole-type selleck screening library GSM allosterically induces conformational changes in the catalytic site of.-secretase to augment the proteolytic activity. Analyses using the photoaffinity labeling technique and systematic mutational studies revealed that the phenylimidazole-type GSM targets a previously unidentified extracellular binding pocket within the N-terminal fragment of presenilin (PS). Collectively, we provide a model for the mechanism of action of the phenylimidazole-type GSM in which binding at the luminal side of PS induces a conformational change in the catalytic center of.-secretase to modulate A beta production.”
“Background Obesity increases the risk of cancer death among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, but the direct evidence for the mechanisms is lacking.

Within iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been the most actively investi

Within iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been the most actively investigated for their role in neurological diseases, especially neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. It has been demonstrated that excessive activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a key role in mediating some aspects EPZ5676 concentration of synaptic dysfunction in several CNS disorders, so extensive research

has been directed on the discovery of compounds that are able to reduce NMDARs activity. This review discusses the role of NMDARs on neurological pathologies and the possible therapeutic use of agents that target this receptor. Additionally, we delve into the role of NMDARs in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and the receptor antagonists that have been tested on in IWR-1-endo molecular weight vivo models of these pathologies. Finally, we put into consideration the importance of antioxidants to counteract oxidative capacity of the signaling cascade in which NMDARs are involved.”
“BACKGROUND: The concept of surgery and public health has been introduced in recent years, highlighting the impact of surgeons on improving public health outcomes, a relationship that has traditionally been ascribed to general practitioners. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of surgeon

availability on deaths from motor vehicle crashes (MVC).\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Retrospective NU7441 molecular weight analysis of the

Area Resource File from 2006 was performed. The primary outcome variable was the three-year (2001-2003) average in MVC deaths per 1 million population for each county. The primary independent variable was the density of surgeons per 1 million population in year 2003. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, adjusting for density of general practitioners, urbanicity of the county, and socioeconomic status of the county.\n\nRESULTS: A total of 3,225 counties were analyzed. The median number of MVC deaths per million population was 226 (IQR 158-320). The median number of surgeon per million population was 55 (IQR 0-105), while the median number of general practitioners per million population was 424 (IQR 274-620). On unadjusted analysis, each increase of one surgeon per million population was associated with 0.38 fewer MVC deaths per million population (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, each increase of one surgeon per million population was significantly associated with 0.16 fewer MVC deaths per million population (p < 0.001). Rural location, persistent poverty, and low educational level were all associated with significant increases in MVC deaths.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Higher density of surgeons is associated with significant reduction in deaths from MVCs.

36; 95% CI, 1 04-1 78; P(interaction) = 0 08) and women (OR, 1 83

36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.78; P(interaction) = 0.08) and women (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.26-2.67; P(interaction) = 0.12).\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that, of the specific components of MetS, those that capture impaired glucose uptake increased the odds of metachronous neoplasia. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(4):1134-43)”
“The aim of this study was to explore associations between chronotype and the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire.

We found a positive association between morningness and dietary restraint and negative correlations between morningness and disinhibition and perceived hunger. Further, there was an association between morningness and flexible control. BMI tended to be negatively associated with morningness and correlated with disinhibition and with the sub-scale RC7. No association was found between BMI and cognitive restraint, hunger and flexible control. Also, no relationships this website existed between sleep length on weekdays or on weekends and BMI OF eating. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:\n\nTo assess the applicability of the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer PKC412 chemical structure regions (ISR) as targets for PCR detection of Azospirillum ssp. and the phytostimulatory

plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria seed inoculant Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 in soil.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nPrimer sets were designed after sequence analysis of the ISR of A. lipoferum CRT1 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. The primers fAZO/rAZO targeting the Azospirillum genus successfully yielded PCR amplicons

(400-550 bp) from Azospirillum strains but also from certain non-Azospirillum strains in vitro, therefore they were not appropriate to monitor indigenous Azospirillum soil populations. The primers fCRT1/rCRT1 targeting A. lipoferum CRT1 generated a single 249-bp PCR product but could also amplify other strains from the same species. XR9576 However, with DNA extracts from the rhizosphere of field-grown maize, both fAZO/rAZO and fCRT1/rCRT1 primer sets could be used to evidence strain CRT1 in inoculated plants by nested PCR, after a first ISR amplification with universal ribosomal primers. In soil, a 7-log dynamic range of detection (102-108 CFU g-1 soil) was obtained.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe PCR primers targeting 16S-23S rDNA ISR sequences enabled detection of the inoculant A. lipoferum CRT1 in field soil.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study:\n\nConvenient methods to monitor Azospirillum phytostimulators in the soil are lacking. The PCR protocols designed based on ISR sequences will be useful for detection of the crop inoculant A. lipoferum CRT1 under field conditions.”
“An investigation was carried out for in vitro degradation of fluoranthene by four bacterial strains (PSM6, PSM7, PSM10 and PSM11) isolated from the petroleum sludge. Although all the strains registered their growth in MSM with 100 ppm fluoranthene, PSM11 growth was better than other strains.

Further, a morphology

Further, a morphology ISRIB concentration graph is constituted with vertices as elements of morphology set and edges specifying conditions for transformations between morphologies. These conditions form a polyhedral cone, which will be called a morphology domain, in the

space of h-vectors. The dynamics of crystal morphology is given by the trajectories of the h-vector inside this morphology domain. The evolution of morphology distributions due to crystal growth inside the morphology domain is described by a morphological-population balance model (M-PBM) which readily submits to solution by the method of characteristics. The methodology, illustrated in controlling crystal morphologies of potassium acid phthalate using additives, paves the way for model-based control of shape control of crystallization processes.”
“We present a generic spatially explicit modeling framework to estimate carbon emissions from deforestation (INPE-EM). The framework incorporates the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region under study. We build an emission model for the Brazilian Amazon combining

annual maps of new clearings, four maps of biomass, and a set of alternative parameters based on the recent literature. The most important results are as follows: (a) Using different biomass maps leads to large differences in estimates of emission; for the entire region of the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, emission estimates selleck chemical of primary forest deforestation range from 0.21 to 0.26 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. (b) Secondary vegetation growth presents a small impact on emission balance because

of the short duration of secondary vegetation. In average, the balance is only 5% smaller than the primary forest deforestation emissions. (c) Deforestation rates decreased significantly in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years, from 27 similar to Mkm2 in 2004 to 7 similar AZD6738 solubility dmso to Mkm2 in 2010. INPE-EM process-based estimates reflect this decrease even though the agricultural frontier is moving to areas of higher biomass. The decrease is slower than a non-process instantaneous model would estimate as it considers residual emissions (slash, wood products, and secondary vegetation). The average balance, considering all biomass, decreases from 0.28 in 2004 to 0.15 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1 in 2009; the non-process model estimates a decrease from 0.33 to 0.10 similar to Pg similar to C similar to yr-1. We conclude that the INPE-EM is a powerful tool for representing deforestation-driven carbon emissions. Biomass estimates are still the largest source of uncertainty in the effective use of this type of model for informing mechanisms such as REDD+.

“Advances in lipidomics technology have facilitated the pr

“Advances in lipidomics technology have facilitated the precise detection, identification and profiling of lipid species within tissues. Mass spectrometry allows for identification of lipids as a function of the total number of carbons and double bonds in their acyl chains. Such detailed descriptions of lipid composition can provide a basis for further investigation of cell signaling and metabolic pathways, both physiological and pathological. Here, we applied phospholipid profiling to mouse models relevant to Parkinson’s disease, using mice that were transgenic for

human alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn) or deleted of endogenous alpha Syn. Proposed functions of alpha Syn include phospholipid binding, regulation of Selleck Belnacasan membrane composition, and regulation of vesicular pools. We investigated whether alpha Syn gene dosage interacts with differences in phospholipid composition across brain regions or with age-related changes in brain phospholipid composition. The most dramatic phospholipid changes were observed in alpha Syn wild-type animals as a function of age and gender. alpha Syn genotype-specific changes were also observed in aged, but not young, mice. Our results provide

a detailed and systematic characterization of brain phospholipid composition in mice and identify age-related changes relevant both to Parkinson’s disease and to normal

“The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA), and in particular cartilage degeneration in OA, are not completely understood. Increasing evidence implicates developmental processes in OA KU-57788 cost etiology and pathogenesis. Herein, we review this evidence. We first examine subtle changes in cartilage development and the specification and formation of joints, which predispose to OA development, and second, we review the switch from an articular to a hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotype that is thought to be part of the OA pathological process ultimately resulting in cartilage degeneration. The latest studies are summarized and we discuss the concepts emerging from these findings in cartilage biology, in the light of our understanding of the developmental processes involved.”
“The majority of Haemogregarina species have been based on the morphology of their erythrocytic stages and supposed strict host specificity. The quantity of species with a limited number of overlapping diagnostic traits has led to a considerable mess in haemogregarine taxonomy and significant synonymy. We analysed host specificity, intra- and interspecific variability, evolutionary relationships, and the distribution of the type species of the genus Haemogregarina – H. stepanowi.

The adverse discharge disposition, in-hospital mortality, and the

The adverse discharge disposition, in-hospital mortality, and the higher cost of hospitalization were taken as the dependent variables.\n\nResults. A total of 15,545 admissions were identified from the MS database. The mean patient age was 44.84 +/- 19.49 years (mean

+/- SD), and 7938 (52%) of the patients were male. Regarding discharge disposition, 64.1% (n = 9917) of the patients were discharged to home or self-care, and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.46% (n = 71). The mean total charges for hospitalization increased from $45,4521.24 in 2003 to $76,698.96 in 2010. Elderly patients, female sex, black race, and lower income based on ZIP code were the independent predictors SB203580 of other LCL161 mw than routine (OTR) disposition (p < 0.001). Private insurance showed a protective effect against OTR disposition. Patients with a higher comorbidity

index (OR 1.908, 95% CI 1.733-2.101; p < 0.001) and with complications (OR 2.214, 95% CI 1.768-2.772; p < 0.001) were more likely to have an adverse discharge disposition. Hospitals with a larger number of beds and those in the Northeast region were independent predictors of the OTR discharge disposition (p < 0.001). Admissions on weekends and nonelective admission had significant influence on the disposition (p < 0.001). Weekend and nonelective admissions were found to be independent predictors of inpatient mortality and the higher cost incurred to the hospitals (p < 0.001). High-volume and large hospitals, West region, and teaching hospitals were also the predictors of higher cost incurred to the hospitals (p < 0.001). The following variables (young patients, higher median household income, nonprivate insurance, presence of complications, and a higher A-1210477 inhibitor comorbidity index) were significantly

correlated with higher hospital charges (p < 0.001), whereas the variables young patients, nonprivate insurance, higher median household income, and higher comorbidity index independently predicted for inpatient mortality (p < 0.001).\n\nConclusions. The independent predictors of adverse discharge disposition were as follows: elderly patients, female sex, black race, lower median household income, nonprivate insurance, higher comorbidity index, presence of complications, larger hospital size, Northeast region, and weekend and nonelective admissions. The predictors of higher cost incurred to the hospitals were as follows: young patients, higher median household income, nonprivate insurance, presence of complications, higher comorbidity index, hospitals with high volume and a large number of beds, West region, teaching hospitals, and weekend and nonelective admissions.”
“A manganite matrix based nano-composite series, (1 – x)La0.67Ca0.33MnO3(LCMO)-(x)BaTiO3(BTO), has been prepared by the pyrophoric method.

When compared to the matched indication cohort, short- and long-t

When compared to the matched indication cohort, short- and long-term mortality risk with splenectomy was not increased.\n\nConclusion: Regardless of indication, the adjusted short- and long-term risk of death for splenectomised patients was higher than the general population. Most of this risk seems to be due to the underlying splenectomy indication and not to splenectomy alone. (C) 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background Development

of more than one primary melanoma in a sole patient is frequent, accounting for 1.28.2% ARN-509 clinical trial of melanoma patients in most recent series. Objective and methods Clinical, histological and epidemiological characteristics of 270 multiple primary melanomas patients were reviewed. Results Two-hundred and seven patients (76.7%) had two melanomas, whereas in the remaining 63 the number of primary ranged from three to eight; on the whole, 639 multiple primary melanomas were identified. Synchronous melanomas developed more frequently

in patients with three or more lesions; median age was significantly lower in the group of patients with more than three melanomas than in the others. Mean Breslows thickness significantly decreases (P < 0.001) from the first (1.77 +/- 1.76 mm) to subsequent primaries (0.85 +/- 1.25 mm for the second and 0.66 +/- 0.48 mm for the SC79 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor third melanoma). Percentage of in situ melanomas was 5.6% as first diagnosis, but increased to 24.8% for the second melanoma; number of nodular melanomas was significantly lower for succeeding diagnosis. Adavosertib AJCC stage at diagnosis showed a statistical prognostic significance, whereas outcome and survival did not depend on the number of primary lesions. Multivariate

analysis confirmed the prognostic role of Breslows thickness, ulceration, gender and patient age, and the better prognosis of patients with multiple melanomas, respect to those with single primary melanoma. Conclusions Skin examination and long-term follow-up are mandatory for patients affected by melanoma, with the intent to promptly diagnose not only a disease progression but also possible new primary melanomas.”
“Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is being led by a driving force of teaches who advocate for the importance of this learning within health and social care professional curriculum. Many of these leaders have additional uni professional teaching responsibilities.\n\nAims: This study aimed to explore the impact of leading an IPE curriculum on teachers, who were at the forefront of establishing a new IPE curriculum in the east midlands, UK.\n\nMethods: The prospective study used the principles of grounded theory to analyse the educator’s experiences. The study included teachers who work from academic university posts and those who teach from within practice.