2 The correlation between increase in VS volume and audiologic d

2. The correlation between increase in VS volume and audiologic deterioration during FU.

Results: Labyrinthine hypointensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and complaints of hearing loss at presentation are predictive of a faster deterioration of hearing (p < 0.05). Growth during the first FU year predicts further growth. Vestibular schwannoma volume does not correlate with audiologic deterioration significantly.

Conclusion: Hypointensity

on T2-weighted image of the affected labyrinth will result in a significant faster deterioration of hearing. Hearing loss was more profound, and hearing will deteriorate significantly faster in patients presenting with complaints of hearing loss. Significant growth during the first year of FU predicts further growth during FU. Sequential MRI cannot be substituted by audiologic examinations solely because increase in VS volume

does not correlate with audiologic deterioration significantly.”
“Objectives. GSI-IX molecular weight We aimed to investigate the association between the expression of phosphorylated Akt(Thr308) (p-Akt(Thr308)) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and clinicopathological parameters of OSCC patients and to verify the validity Small molecule library research buy of p-Akt(Thr308) as a prognostic biomarker.

Study design. One hundred and ninety-one patients with OSCC were recruited for the study. We tested the expression of p-Akt(Thr308) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue microarray (TMA) and analyzed with digital pathology analysis software. The clinicopathological parameters of all patients were collected from follow-up.

Results. P-Akt(Thr308) was detected in 95.2% of OSCC patients. The expression of p-Akt(Thr308) was significantly correlated with local recurrence and five-year

survival rate. High expression of p-Akt(Thr308) in OSCC was associated with poor prognosis.

Conclusion. BTSA1 concentration P-Akt(Thr308) might be a candidate biomarker for the prediction of OSCC prognosis.”

The expression of Dkk-3, as a number of the Dkk family was different in different cancer. Because Dkk-3 encodes a secreted protein, we investigated whether the Dkk-3 protein is secreted into the sera of patients with gynecological cancer.

Material & Methods:

The levels of Dkk-3 protein were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sera of 104 patients with gynecological cancer: 36 with ovarian, 40 with cervical and 28 with endometrial cancers.


The serum levels of Dkk-3 protein in patients with ovarian cancer [25.54 (7.99) pg/mL] was lower than in normal individuals [42.08 (14.89) pg/mL] (P = 0.000). But serum levels of Dkk-3 protein in patients with cervical [166.39 (300.68) pg/mL] (P = 0.013) and endometrial cancers [73.64 (23.36) pg/mL] (P = 0.000) were higher than in normal individuals. The serum levels of Dkk-3 protein were associated with clinical stage in patients with cervical and endometrial cancers.

“Background: Overuse of antibiotics is the main force driv

“Background: Overuse of antibiotics is the main force driving the emergence and dissemination of bacterial resistance in the community. France consumes more antibiotics and has the highest rate of beta-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae than any other European country. In 2001, the government initiated “”Keep Antibiotics Working”; the program’s main component was a campaign entitled “”Les antibiotiques c’est pas automatique”

(“”Antibiotics are not automatic”) launched in 2002. We report the evaluation of this campaign by analyzing the evolution of outpatient antibiotic use in France 2000-2007, according to therapeutic class and geographic and age-group patterns.

Methods and Findings: This evaluation is based on 2000-2007 data, including 453,407,458 individual reimbursement data records and incidence of flu-like syndromes (FLSs). Data were obtained from the computerized Stem Cell Compound Library clinical trial French National Health Insurance database and provided

by the French Sentinel Network. As compared to the preintervention period (2000-2002), the total number of antibiotic prescriptions per 100 inhabitants, adjusted for FLS frequency during the winter season, changed by -26.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]-33.5% to -19.6%) over 5 years. The decline occurred in all 22 regions of France and affected all antibiotic therapeutic classes except quinolones. The greatest decrease, -35.8% (95% CI -48.3% to -23.2%), was observed among young children aged 6-15 years. A significant change of -45% in the relationship between the incidence of flu-like syndromes and antibiotic prescriptions was observed.

Conclusions: The French CX-6258 price national campaign was associated with a marked reduction of learn more unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, particularly in children. This study provides a useful method for assessing public-health

strategies designed to reduce antibiotic use.”
“PURPOSE: To report 3-year results of the safety and efficacy of canaloplasty, a procedure involving circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of the inner wall of Schlemm canal to treat open-angle glaucoma.

SETTING: Multicenter surgical sites.

DESIGN: Nonrandomized multicenter clinical trial.

METHODS: This study comprised adult open-angle glaucoma patients having canaloplasty or combined cataract canaloplasty surgery. Qualifying preoperative intraocular pressures (IOPs) were at least 16 mm Hg with historical IOPs of at least 21 mm Hg. A flexible microcatheter was used to viscodilate the full circumference of the canal and to place a trabecular tensioning suture. Primary outcome measures included IOP, glaucoma medication use, and adverse events.

RESULTS: Three years postoperatively, all study eyes (n = 157) had a mean IOP of 15.2 mm Hg +/- 3.5 (SD) and mean glaucoma medication use of 0.8 +/- 0.9 compared with a baseline IOP of 23.8 +/- 5.0 mm Hg on 1.8 +/- 0.9 medications. Eyes with combined cataract canaloplasty surgery had a mean 1013 of 13.6 +/- 3.6 mm Hg on 0.3 +/- 0.

JHC extract, with concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mu g/mL, inhi

JHC extract, with concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mu g/mL, inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. The expression of PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha, important adpogenic key markers was significantly reduced when JHC extract was added to cells for 8 days compared with the untreated control group. These results suggest that JHC extract might be a potential therapeutic agent as a natural anti-obesity material.”
“Study selleck chemical Design. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected multicenter series.

Objective. To evaluate the sagittal profile of surgically treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients.

Summary of

Background Data. With the increasing CX-6258 solubility dmso popularity of segmental pedicle screw spinal instrumentation, thoracic kyphosis (TK) is often sacrificed to achieve coronal and axial plane correction.

Methods. Radiographs of AIS patients with a Lenke type 1 deformity and minimum 2-year follow-up after selective thoracic fusion (lowest instrumented vertebra of T11, T12, or L1) were evaluated. Changes in TK were correlated with changes in lumbar lordosis (LL). Patients were divided according to approach (open/thoracoscopic anterior vs. posterior). Analysis of variance was used to compare pre and

postoperative radiographic measures.

Results. Two hundred fifty-one patients (age: 14 +/- 2 years) were included. Sixty seven percentages of the patients had anterior surgery (97 open anterior, 71 thoracoscopic) and 33% (83 patients) had posterior spinal fusion. A decrease in postoperative TK was significantly

correlated (P <= 0.001) with a decrease in LL at first erect (r = 0.3), 1 year (r = 0.4) and 2 years (r = 0.4), independent of surgical approach. LL decreased significantly Selleckchem GDC-0994 at the first erect regardless of approach (P = 0.003); however, at 2-year postoperative TK and LL were significantly decreased after a posterior approach (P <= 0.001) when compared with an anterior approach that added kyphosis. The decrease in LL (5.6 degrees +/- 9.7 degrees) was nearly twice the decrease in TK (2.8 degrees +/- 11.4 degrees) in the posterior group at 2-years.

Conclusion. Given that thoracic AIS is often associated with a preexisting reduction in TK, ideal surgical correction should address this deformity. Procedures which further reduce TK also reduce LL. It is unclear if the loss of LL from thoracic scoliosis correction will compound the loss of LL that occurs with age and lead to further decline in sagittal balance. With this concern, we recommend a posterior column lengthening and/or an anterior column shortening to achieve restoration of normal TK and maximal LL.

We genotyped 151 chickens

from five populations: Red Jung

We genotyped 151 chickens

from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes – corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) – were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific 17DMAG PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei’s genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity

using Dice’s coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns GSK461364 inhibitor were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses,

while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology.”
“Purpose: To prospectively determine the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance (MR) Cediranib mw imaging in predicting the malignancy of breast lesions classified as borderline at core needle biopsy (CNB).

Materials and Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. Between February 2007 and October 2009, 193 patients underwent ultrasonography (US)-guided CNB. Thirty-two lesions in 32 patients were classified as “”borderline”" (“”lesions of uncertain malignant potential”" according to the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening program or those that are “”probably benign”" according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] lexicon) at pathologic examination and were evaluated. All 32 patients underwent contrast agent-enhanced breast MR imaging 1-3 weeks after CNB; surgical biopsy was performed within 60 days of MR imaging.

Results were compared with histologic findings.

“We report the observation of weak ferromagnetism up to T(

“We report the observation of weak ferromagnetism up to T(C)approximate to 250 K and a spin-glass-like behavior at temperatures below T(SG)approximate to 30 K in nanoscale MnO particles. T(SG) is considerably lower and T(C) is much higher than the Neel temperature (T(N)=122 K) of bulk MnO. While the dominant low temperature behavior (below 30 K) may be attributed to the effects studied in this system before, such as uncompensated surface spins in antiferromagnetic particles, no manganese oxides

have been observed with the Curie temperature as high as 250 K. We explain the magnetic ordering below T(C) as due to indirect exchange of the type observed Tubastatin A cost in dilute magnetic oxides, which can be mediated by crystal defects and/or surfaces. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3366611]“
“As part of the workshop entitled “”Early Risk Determinants and Later Health Outcomes: Implications for Research Prioritization and the Food Supply”" (8-9 July 2008, Washington, DC), which was cosponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute of North America and the International

Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation, representatives of the food industry discussed the practical application of nutrition science. Nutrition plays a key role in guiding health outcomes throughout the life cycle. In particular, the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods are extremely sensitive to the presence of appropriate nutrition. A growing body of evidence shows that early nutrition may program the unborn and the infant’s key physiologic systems, including the endocrine, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, to influence later Selleckchem PND-1186 life outcomes. While scientists in academia continue to explore the multifactorial nature of early risk determinants and later life outcomes at a mechanistic and basic science level, it is important to understand the potential of the infant and child food industries to address questions such as what factors have been noted to drive research in these sectors of the food industry. How can scientists in these industries work alongside the scientists in academia and in government

to set priorities, make decisions around these health issues, and translate academic insights into innovative nutritional solutions for the benefit of public health? Given the commitment of the Napabucasin concentration infant and child food industries to deliver scientifically supported early life nutrition, it is easy to understand why this industry would work in partnership with both the scientists in academia and the government to identify a means of addressing the fundamental questions of this workshop. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(suppl): 1530S-2S.”
“Blend films containing two types of starch, various amounts of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and polylactide were prepared. The effects of MDI level and starch type on the tensile, thermal, and morphological properties of these films were investigated.

Calls involving patients with documented limitations of medical t

Calls involving patients with documented limitations of medical therapy (LOMT) orders were excluded. We

determined patients who were triaged to stay on the ward at the end of their first (index) call and analyzed their vital status and location 24 h later. Finally, we reviewed medical charts of patients triaged to remain on the ward and had a cardiac arrest and/or died within 24 h of RRT review.

Results: We studied 8304 RRT calls. We excluded 1794 calls involving patients with LOMT, 2165 that were repeat calls, 20 where data was missing, 650 where patients were immediately transferred to a high dependency (HDU) or an intensive care unit (ICU) and 92 where calls were rapidly upgraded to cardiac arrest calls. Thus, we identified 3583 index calls at the end of which patients were triaged to remain on the

ward. Within 24 h, 454 (12.7%) of those had a repeat RRT activation selleck kinase inhibitor and 378 were transferred Ubiquitin inhibitor to HDU/ICU. 12 (0.3%) suffered a cardiac arrest on the ward. Altogether, 14 (0.4%) patients died within 24 h of the index RRT activation. Of those 6 had LOMT applied after the call, 4 had been admitted to ICU in a further call and 6 (0.2%) patients had unexpected cardiac arrest on the ward.

Conclusions: The rate of unexpected cardiac arrest in the 24 h following RRT activation is very low for patients triaged to stay on the ward. Major triage errors by the RRT appear uncommon. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to compare oestrus expression and fertility rate in used and new controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) device treated anoestrous buffaloes. Furthermore, to determine the timing of ovulation, and fertility rate in estradiol benzoate (EB) and GnRH-administered CIDR-treated anoestrous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

In experiment 1, buffaloes received either a used CIDR (UCIDR, n = 35) or a new CIDR (NCIDR, n = 36) for 7 day and PGF2 alpha on day 6. Oestrous expression was similar (p > 0.05) between UCIDR (88.5%) and NCIDR (96.6%) buffaloes. The pregnancy rate did find more not differ (p > 0.05) because of treatment (37.1% in UCIDR vs 36.6% in NCIDR). In experiment 2, buffaloes (n = 55) received CIDR device for 7 days and PGF2 alpha, on day 6 and randomly assigned into three treatment groups: (i) CIDR-EB (n = 17) received EB on day 8, (ii) CIDR-GnRH (n = 18) received GnRH on day 9 and (iii) control (n = 20) received no further treatment. Mean interval from CIDR removal to ovulation in CIDR-EB, CIDR-GnRH and CIDR group were 61.3 +/- 0.8, 64.9 +/- 1.8 and 65.1 +/- 16.7 h, respectively. However, the buffaloes in the CIDR-EB and CIDR-GnRH group had lesser variability in the timing of ovulation compared to control. The pregnancy rate of both CIDR-EB group (58%) and CIDR-GnRH group (61%) were tended to be higher (p < 0.1) than control (30%).

The needle tip is brought forward and the anterior capsule graspe

The needle tip is brought forward and the anterior capsule grasped by micro-forceps introduced via another paracentesis wound. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device is then injected into the anterior chamber and the lens stabilized. J Cataract Refract Surg 2009; 35:980-986 PLX4032 cell line (C) 2009 ASCRS and ESCRS”
“Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits that involve several neurotransmitters. One of the neurochemical systems that plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction is the endogenous opioid system (EOS). Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed

in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within these reward circuits. Chronic exposure to the different prototypical drugs of abuse, including opioids, alcohol, nicotine, psychostimulants and cannabinoids has been reported to produce significant alterations within the EOS, which seem to play an important role in the development of the addictive process. In this review, we will describe GSK923295 the adaptive changes produced by different drugs of abuse on the EOS, and the current knowledge about the contribution of each component of this neurobiological system to their addictive properties. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

composites with Fly ash, Cenospheres, and Calcium aluminosilicate as fillers have been examined for their mechanical and microstructure

properties. Free volume measurements have been carried out using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy to probe the microstructural features of the composites. Incorporation of fly ash, cenospheres, and calcium aluminosilicate improved the thermal properties of the composites due to increased T. of the composites as revealed by the DSC data. Also, it was observed that the mechanical properties of calcium aluminosilicate filled composites improved more compared to fly ash Liproxstatin-1 and cenospheres filled composites. We attribute these favorable changes to the higher silica content of calcium aluminosilicate on account of possible interactions between the polymer matrix and silica and to some extent from particulate size. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 3087-3094, 2010″
“Background: Treatment of complex three and four-part proximal humeral fractures with hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients has yielded mixed clinical results. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has emerged as a treatment option for cornminuted proximal humeral fractures for these patients. The purpose of the study was to perform a prospective evaluation of patient outcomes comparing hemiarthroplasty and reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of comminuted proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients.

Methods: Fifty-three consecutive elderly patients (average age, 74.4 years) underwent an arthroplasty for a complex proximal humeral fracture.

001) and consumed more energy (P=0 039) than did children who did

001) and consumed more energy (P=0.039) than did children who did not sensitize.

Conclusions: Habituation is influenced by variety of foods, and overweight children increase energy intake more with variety than do leaner children. Research is needed to evaluate mechanisms of how variety influences the motivation to eat and energy intake, and how the variety effect can be used to influence intake across multiple eating occasions in children. GW3965 Others inhibitor Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 746-54.”
“Background: Dysregulation

of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis could participate in psoriasis pathogenesis. Analysis of nascent psoriasis lesions should help at identifying early vascular anomalies.

Objective: To analyse vascular development, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis markers expression in uninvolved skin in psoriatic patients (N), early psoriasis lesions or pinpoints (PP) and psoriasis plaques (PSO).

Methods: Skin biopsies were taken in 17 patients in N and in PSO and/or PP. The mRNA steady-state level of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis markers was

measured by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed for von Willebrand factor, podoplanin, Ki-67 and VEGFR3. Blood (BV) and lymphatic (LV) vessels expansion was measured by computer-assisted morphometry.

Results: Clinical click here and epidermal aspects indicated that PP are intermediate between N and PSO. While total BV area was already increased in PP similarly to PSO as compared to N, LV area in PP was intermediate between N and PSO. Mean LV size was identical in N and PP and increased selleck compound in PSO, mean BV size in PP being intermediate between N and PSO. VEGF-A 189 variant was increased in PP as compared to N and PSO. As compared to N, angiogenesis markers (VEGF-A isoforms, PIGF, VEGFR2, NRP-1), VEGF-C and NRP-2 were similarly increased in PP and PSO. Keratin 16 and the lymphangiogenesis markers (VEGFR3, prox-1) were intermediate in PP.

Conclusion: These data suggest that the expansion of lymphatic vessels occurs after blood vascular development in psoriasis. Expansion of BV in PP could be followed by vessel enlargement during progression to PSO, in parallel with a decreased

VEGF-A 189/VEGF-A 121 balance in plaques. (C) 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND Several case series have reported an association between sorafenib and the development of skin cancer, but they differ in the reported rapidity of skin cancer onset and the frequency of recurrence with ongoing multikinase inhibitor (MKI) treatment.

OBJECTIVE To compare the presentation and incidence of skin cancer in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with sorafenib and sunitinib.

MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study reviewed the records of 69 patients with RCC treated with sorafenib or sunitinib at the University of Colorado Hospital between January 2005 and July 2009.

The assay should be widely used for this purpose if, and only if,

The assay should be widely used for this purpose if, and only if, excellent MDR-TB management is available, both for ethical reasons and to reduce the risk of extensively drug-resistant TB.”
“A new symmetrical phenylpropanoid glycoside, tangshenoside VIII (1), together with six known tangshenosides (2-7) were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR analyses. Tangshenosides have chemotaxonomic significance. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published

by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“International PD0332991 in vitro surveys have demonstrated this website that asthma is still underdiagnosed and undertreated in many parts of the world. Despite improvements in the standard of asthma care delivered in many areas, as evidenced by improved global asthma mortality data,

much information on projects and programmes undertaken in resource-limited regions of the world is not in the public domain.

The aim of this report is to review projects and programmes in diverse regions around the world so that health care providers, planners and consumers may draw on the successes, failures and lessons learnt. Such real world experiences may contribute to achieving Global Initiative for Asthma goals of asthma control.

Asthma projects and programmes in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, South Africa and Turkey were discussed by a group of experts in asthma care, the Advancing Asthma Care Network, from their respective countries, over a course of three satellite meetings in 2010.

Collective analyses consistently identified low rates of dissemination and implementation of national and international treatment guidelines, low levels of continuing medical education and training β-Nicotinamide research buy of primary health care professionals and access and distribution of inhaled corticosteroids

to be major barriers that are critical to the overall success of a national asthma management programme. In the less developed asthma programmes, under-recognition and undertreatment further limited the success of the programmes.

Evidence from well-established national asthma management programmes suggests that establishment of a successful programme entails a logical progression through specific developmental stages, starting with political/stakeholder endorsement and commitment, followed by epidemiological evaluation, evaluation of disease burden, evaluation of access to care and best therapy, and finally optimisation and maintenance therapy for individual patients.”
“Three new triterpene saponins, mandshunosides C-E (1-3) together with four known triterpene saponins (4-7) were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis mandshurica.

An analysis of the widths of these peaks (inverse correlation len

An analysis of the widths of these peaks (inverse correlation length) shows that the reorientation

under the magnetic field can lead to a phase transition of the portion of the liquid crystal that is reorienting.”
“One new 18-oxygenated polyhydroxy steroid, (24S)-ergostan-3,5,6,18,25-pentaol 18,25-diacetate (1), along with five known analogues (2-6), was isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated Bromosporine by 1D NMR, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the application of the modified Mosher’s method. The isolated compounds were assayed for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.”
“Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight parents’ views on information in childhood cancer care.

Method: A qualitative design, appropriate to gain a holistic view, has been chosen. Eight

families with children diagnosed with cancer, of various ages and gender and from various backgrounds, participated in five interviews each during the first year of the child’s illness.

Results: If the parents’ needs were fulfilled, they were better equipped to handle the illness of their child, which is totally dependant on how the matter of information is dealt with. Information is a complex this website and demanding issue for the persons involved and the families’ views were divergent in this area. Sometimes they seemed to obtain the information successfully and sometimes there were great problems in this respect. Therefore

their preferences must be considered.

Conclusion: There has to be an improvement from the aspects of what, when and how information is provided. The major findings of this study indicate that the families need better support and more distinct instructions to be able to cope with the situation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neutron supermirrors are increasingly important devices for transporting, MI-503 supplier bending, and focusing neutron beams. Reflected neutrons from a supermirror are divided into specular and off-specular (diffuse) components. Suppression of the diffuse component is important since it reduces the signal-to-noise ratio, a serious problem when a supermirror is used in a focusing system for purposes such as small angle scattering measurements. The diffuse intensity can be decreased by more than one order of magnitude by adopting NiC/Ti multilayers instead of conventional Ni/Ti multilayers. In order to obtain insight into the mechanism that controls the diffuse intensity from a supermirror, the crystal structure of Ni and NiC monolayers and the interface structure of Ni/Ti and NiC/Ti multilayers were investigated.