Therefore, IDO has dual immunoregulatory functions driven by Stem Cell Compound Library high throughput distinct cytokines. Firstly, the IFN-γ–IDO axis is crucial in generating and sustaining the function of regulatory T cells. Secondly, a nonenzymic function of IDO — as a signaling molecule — contributes to TGF-β–driven tolerance. The latter function is part of a regulatory circuit in pDCs whereby — in response to TGF-β — the kinase Fyn mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of IDO-associated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in downstream effects that regulate gene expression and preside over a proper, homeostatic balance between immunity
and tolerance. All these aspects are covered in this review. Immune regulation is a highly evolved biologic response capable of not only fine-tuning inflammation and innate immunity, but also of modulating adaptive immunity see more and establishing
tolerance to self. Amino acid catabolism is an ancestral survival strategy that can additionally control immune responses in mammals []. IDO (also referred to as IDO1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism along a degradative pathway that leads to Trp starvation and the production of Trp metabolites collectively known as kynurenines. Regulation of immunity by essential amino acid starvation occurs by two distinct mechanisms. First, some enzymes are upregulated with no need for adaptive immunity, reflecting an innate protective response against inflammatory damage.
Second, there occurs an interplay involving regulatory T (Treg) cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which results in further upregulation of not only IDO, but at least four other essential amino acid-consuming enzymes, capable of restraining selleck chemicals T-cell proliferation and, in addition, promoting Treg-cell expansion via infectious tolerance [[2, 3]]. The first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism is the cleavage of the 2,3-double bond of the indole ring of tryptophan. In mammals, this reaction is performed independently by IDO, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO; mostly expressed in the liver), and the recently discovered indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2; a paralogue of IDO; from the same ancestor gene but devoid of signaling activity). The initial observation suggesting an immune regulatory role for IDO, previously considered to be a merely “metabolic” enzyme, dates back to the seminal finding that its inhibition by 1-methyl-dl-tryptophan in pregnancy would cause rejection of semiallogeneic, but not syngeneic, fetuses in mice [].